Datum expert

Hoe maak ik een nieuwe bladwijzermap in Chrome?

2020.10.21 19:47 Few_Raspberry_5401 Hoe maak ik een nieuwe bladwijzermap in Chrome?

probeer je een bladwijzer te maken in je Google-account om belangrijke werken te onthouden, bladwijzers is een van de beste om remmber-werken op de specifieke datum te onthouden, dus als je niet weet hoe je dat moet doen, neem dan contact op met experts om te zien hoe u een bladwijzer instelt door het gogle-nummer te bellen + 32-28083447 https://belgietelefoonnummer.com/google
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2020.07.06 13:35 Fintrent 4 Skäl till att ditt Hem Behöver en Professionell Storstädningstjänst

Med en alltmer hektisk livsstil inser fler och fler människor att de inte har lika mycket tid till övers som de tidigare generationerna hade. Livet levs alltid på språng, och vardagliga göromål förpassas till bakgrunden på grund av brist på tid och energi. Uppgifter som storstädning av hemmet varje dag har nu blivit till att städa varje helg. Detta leder till höga ansamlingar av damm, insekter och bakterier i olika utrymmen i hemmet. Även om de flesta människor försöker göra ett försök att städa huset noggrant varje helg brukar den enorma ansträngning som detta kräver göra att de känner sig trötta och uttömda vid slutet av dagen. Dessutom kan de knappast njuta av livet under helgen som de borde. Storstädningstjänster är svaret på allt detta. De hjälper människor som har för lite tid och energi på grund av jobb eller andra aktiviteter genom att städa deras hem utan några bekymmer eller problem.
Dessa tjänster, som Stockholm storstädning, storstädning Uppsala , och Stockholm hemstädning, tillhandahålls av experter som kan sitt jobb från grunden, och kan faktiskt göra ett bättre jobb vid städning än de flesta husägare. Många människor säger faktiskt att det är bättre att göra upp ett storstädningsschema och anställa dessa experter med några månaders mellanrum för att städa huset på grunden. Om du är en av dem som redan har anlitat dessa professionella tjänster, grattis! Du är redan på väg att få ut det mesta av din tid och energi.
För er som inte har gjort det eller läser om Stockholm och Uppsala städning för första gången just nu, låt oss ta oss en stund att berätta några av fördelarna med professionell storstädningstjänst for hemma och varför du bör testa det.

Storstädningstjänst: 4 Fördelar med professionell storstädning av hemmet

  1. Storstädningstjänst: Det sparar tid och energi
Vi kommer inte att skriva mycket på denna punkt, eftersom det är en uppenbar fördel. I stället för att du sliter med att skrubba badrumsgolvet eller rengör köksfläkten med några månaders mellanrum kan dessa experter göra jobbet åt dig. Du sparar tid och kan spendera den på viktigare saker som att ta ditt barn ut på en promenad, eller göra färdigt ett projekt du gillar, men inte haft tid för på grund av ditt jobb.
Om du dessutom tar en titt på dina vardagliga aktiviteter, kommer du att inse att ge dig själv friheten att anställa professionella storstädningstjänster är en naturlig lösning. Du förtjänar den friheten.
  1. Storstädningstjänster: Det sparar pengar
De flesta människor inser inte att anlita storstädningsproffs (Storstädningstjänst) kan hjälpa dem att spara pengar. Låt oss för ett ögonblick glömma ordspråket att “tid är pengar” och helt enkelt titta på hur dessa experter faktiskt sparar dig pengar.
Låt oss anta att du försöker städa huset själv. Du köper rengöringsmedel, borstar och moppar för att städa de smutsiga områdena. Du lämnar också in soffkuddarna för kemtvätt och anlitar hjälp med att ta bort smuts från svåråtkomliga platser, som lampor och fläktar i taket.
Det finns en god chans att all utrustning du köper, kemtvätten, och de pengar du betalar för att anlita någon till hjälp för enstaka sysslor (som du måste övervaka också), kommer att kosta mer än de pengar du betalar för städtjänsten.
Kom också ihåg att du inte är expert på städning. Det är troligt att du trots dina bästa ansträngningar inte kommer att kunna städa allt du ville på ditt första försök och måste göra det igen. Experterna, å andra sidan, kommer inte att ha några sådana problem och kan städa varje rum och varje hörn och vrå utan att missa något minsta damm eller smuts.
  1. Storstädningstjänst: Det är stressfri, snabb service
När det gäller storstädning vs regelbunden städning är detta kanske den viktigaste punkten för professionella städtjänster. Experterna kommer till ditt hus på en tidpunkt som är bekvämt för dig och hjälper dig genom att städa de områden som du inte kan städa själv. Du betalar bara för de tjänster du väljer när du anlitar ett företag för hjälp med Stockholm storstädning och Uppsala storstädning.
Med Fintrent kan du till exempel välja specifika planer som städning av endast badrummen i huset eller bara ta hand om köket. Du kan välja de rum du vill ska städas, och vi kommer inte störa andra rum i ditt hem. Du bestämmer datum och tid och vår personal når din dörr vid den bestämda tiden. Dessutom städar de bort all smuts och damm, och gör ditt hem skinande rent igen.
  1. Storstädningstjänster: Det ger dig ett rent, hygieniskt hem
Professionella städare har specialutrustning och rengöringsmedel som säkerställer att huset rengörs ordentligt från topp till tå. Allt från otillgängliga platser som insidan av köksfläkten och innertaket, till de platser som lockar mer smuts som takfläktar, utrymmen under kökslådor och badrumsskåp, får en ordentlig rengöring.
De dammsuger också soffan, stolarna och kuddarna för att ta bort damm, matpartiklar och hårbollar som har ackumulerats genom åren. Ångrengöring av golvet tar bort damm och mikrober som har täppt till de mikroskopiska hålen i golvet och ger dig ett hem som är fritt från damm, allergener och skadliga ämnen i luften.
resource: 4 Skäl till att ditt Hem Behöver en Professionell Storstädningstjänst
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2020.06.18 06:03 w4rdr0b3 BIG SURPRISE! Phone hacking & surveillance are being further enabled by the great Covid 19 panic of 2020 [RESEARCH]

Research; Remote manipulation & blocking of audio/visual recording devices on smartphones
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
ADVERT; How to Hack Someone’s Phone Camera

Is It Possible to Hack Someone’s Phone Camera?
Yes, it is absolutely possible to hack someone’s phone camera. There are several tools that can be used for this purpose. For example, RAT (Remote Accessing/Administration Tools) can be used to monitor the target’s phone camera.
By hacking the camera you can also use it to take pictures of your surroundings. This is a great way to know where the target is at a specific point in time. You can also get to know who he/she is with and where. This is, therefore, a powerful feature indeed. However, RAT tools can be complex to use.

https://spyic.com/phone-hack/how-to-hack-someones-phone-camera/?f_pt_ch=ICABCPC&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIzL6YtrSK6gIVCsqyCh0CdAFZEAAYASAAEgKmMfD_BwE

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Phone-hacking device used by police sells on eBay for $100
The FBI is among the agencies which reportedly use the Cellebrite tool.

A phone-hacking device that law enforcement officials use to extract data from phones is popping up on eBay for as little as $100. Federal agencies in the US and elsewhere, including the FBI and Department of Homeland Security, typically spend up to $15,000 on current models of Cellebrite's Universal Forensic Extraction Device, though older versions are available on the secondary market.
https://www.engadget.com/2019-02-28-ios-android-hacking-device-ebay.html

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"Apple" patented a technology that blocks the iPhone’s camera feature.

The new software, which hasn’t been officially introduced by Apple, would reportedly allow venues to use an infrared beam to disable a mobile phone’s camera, preventing users from taking videos and photos."

https://variety.com/2016/legit/news/apple-may-block-iphone-from-taking-photos-video-at-concerts-1201806381/

“An infrared emitter can be located in areas where picture or video capture is prohibited,” the patent reads. “An electronic device can then receive the infrared signals, decode the data and temporarily disable the device’s recording function based on the command.”

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jun/30/apple-iphone-camera-disable-remote-sensors-patent

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

How Cell Phones Are Tracked

The options for crowd surveillance are numerous. Stingrays and other IMSI catchers are controversial devices that have been used by local and federal law enforcement. These devices can trick your cell phone into connecting with it, instead of a cell tower, and intercept information (like SMS messages) without you necessarily realizing it. They can also extract identifying information from your phone and track your movements.

https://www.pcmag.com/how-to/how-to-lock-down-your-phone-for-a-protest

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Agencies Spending Millions on 'Crossbow' Spy Tech, an Upgraded Stingray

"the Crossbow is an IMSI-catcher, a device that pretends to be a cellphone tower and tricks phones into connecting to it. From here, the device can capture a SIM card's unique identifier—the IMSI—and some models can intercept text messages and phone calls. It can also be used to track the physical location of a device, and by extension, its owner.
The devices can indiscriminately sweep up personal information of innocent people who happen to be in the vicinity of the device, and IMSI-catchers can also interfere with devices' abilities to make emergency 911 calls.

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/jgxm3g/crossbow-imsi-catcher-new-stingray

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Crossbow is a compact, multi-transmit, cellular transceiver platform for 2G, 3G, and 4G. kit includes: crossbow main unit, cabling, antennas, laptop, laptop battery pack, charger, external usb drive, external band selector, and software.
https://www.parttarget.com/5825-01-628-3210_5825016283210_CROSSBOW-CTP-01.html/-E5258788-57BC-4FA4-BED7-495DC067CE00

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phone detection software

Sophisticated software automatically detects if a driver is handling a phone. Filtered images are then checked by a human eye by NSW authorities before a fine is issued.

Discarded images are deleted from digital files within an hour.
https://www.caradvice.com.au/811236/mobile-phone-detection-cameras-roll-out-across-australia-heres-everything-you-need-to-know/

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Police 'considered' using

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The San Diego Police Department considered using a hacking tool that would have given them remote access to a person's smartphone messages, contacts, photos, and more.
The hacking tool, called Phantom, promised an 'intelligence gold mine' for the 'investigative and special support offices' of the SDPD.
The tool could also be used to turn on the phone's microphone without the user knowing, covertly take pictures through its camera app, and even intercept calls - all while leaving 'no trace whatsoever on the device.'

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-8320083/Surveillance-firm-pitched-police-departments-remote-phone-hacking-tool.html

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
KASHOGGI MURDER

In August 2016, a Westbridge employee emailed the San Diego Police Department (SDPD) offering more information on Phantom, "a mobile intelligence system that would be a great addition to your investigative and special support offices." After remotely hacking the phone, Phantom can siphon a target's emails, text messages, and contact list, as well track their location, turn on the device's microphone and take photos with its camera, according to the brochure.
A former NSO employee told Motherboard that Phantom was "a brand name for U.S. territory," but the "same Pegasus," referring to NSO's phone hacking tool that the company has sold to multiple countries including the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia for millions of dollars. Infamously, Saudi Arabia used the software to surveil associates of murdered journalist Jamal Khashoggi.

https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/8899nz/nso-group-pitched-phone-hacking-tech-american-police

WESTBRIDGE PHANTOM BROCHURE [VIA VICE ARTICLE ABOVE]

https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/6888574-Westbridge-NSO-Group-Brochure-for-Phantom.html

Pegasus = NSO Group = Israeli Mossad ?

https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/india-news-intercepting-calls-monitoring-applications-how-israeli-spyware-pegasus-snoops-on-phones/341460

WhatsApp confirms: Israeli spyware was used to snoop on Indian journalists, activists
It is learnt that at least two dozen academics, lawyers, Dalit activists and journalists in India were contacted and alerted by WhatsApp that their phones had been under state-of-the-art surveillance for a two-week period until May 2019.

https://indianexpress.com/article/india/whatsapp-confirms-israeli-spyware-used-snoop-on-indian-journalists-activists-pegasus-facebook-6095296/


++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

https://www.nsogroup.com/

Cue the Bond music;

'Fleming' system

“Fleming” is a new program developed by Israeli cyber intelligence firm NSO that uses cell phone and public health data to identify where people with coronavirus are and who they come in contact with. As tech companies work to create contact tracing tools, experts say location tracking can present serious privacy concerns.

https://www.nbcnews.com/nightly-news/video/new-high-tech-coronavirus-contact-tracing-efforts-stoke-privacy-concerns-82572869555


++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++


Israel-based private security firm NSO Group, known for making mobile hacking tools, is leading one of Israel’s contact-tracing efforts.
Security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered one of NSO’s contact-tracing systems on the internet, unprotected and without a password, for anyone to access. After he contacted the company, NSO pulled the unprotected database offline. Diachenko said he believes the database contains dummy data.

NSO told TechCrunch that the system was only for demonstrating its technology and denied it was exposed because of a security lapse. NSO is still waiting for the Israeli government’s approval to feed cell records into the system. But experts say the system should not have been open to begin with, and that centralized databases of citizens’ location data pose a security and privacy risk.

[snip]

The unprotected database was hosted on an Amazon Web Services server in Frankfurt, where the data protection regime is one of the strictest in the world.

It contained about six weeks of location data, spanning around March 10 to April 23. It also included specific dates, times and the location of a “target” — a term that NSO used in the database to describe people — that may have come into contact with a potentially infected person.

https://techcrunch.com/2020/05/07/nso-group-fleming-contact-tracing/
____________________________
"According to Minnesota Public Safety Commissioner John Harringon, officials there have been using what they describe, without going into much detail, as contact-tracing in order to build out a picture of protestor affiliations — a process that officials in the state say has led them to conclude that much of the protest activity there is being fueled by people from outside coming in."
[snip]
"The tracking, known as geoharvesting, is when data is gathered from a smartphone app on a device connected to the internet. That data contains geolocation information that can be queried to show movement on a map."
"The cellphone users remained anonymous and their locations were instead culled from the publishers of the opt-in apps they were using, said McEwan, CEO of the Austin-based startup Datum that is the parent company under which VoteMap falls. People gauging cellphone locations the day of the April 30 protest and the day after would not be able to see to whom the phone belonged," she said
https://massprivatei.blogspot.com/2020/06/police-use-contact-tracing-and-big-tech.html
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2020.06.05 10:21 DDSejal Metadata Management Solutions Market Report 2020 Global Industry Size, Trends, Growth, Analysis, Demand, 2025 Forecast

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2020.05.24 19:21 Jimohwasiu Goldario

physical mining, gems production lines and adornments retailers from around the globe,

https://preview.redd.it/9dpn9e36wq051.png?width=796&format=png&auto=webp&s=f27d42b4088e5a9a4c16126e66ec64310f7dd119
Hi everybody this time, I am going to give you a short outline of the * Goldario * venture, so read it cautiously, read it apparently, and realize how helpful it is for you later on.

Goldario made a stage for its gems biological system and utilized its budgetary model on the blockchain. This is the tokenization of a current emerald mine, a stone cutting and cleaning plant, an adornments manufacturing plant and a system of retailers. Specifically, along these lines, it permits individuals with lower venture lows and individuals with high total assets or comparable institutional financial specialists. This makes an environment wherein individuals can exploit their situation in the fundamental business, get productive intermittent advantages and profits.

Goldario is the aftereffect of an effective framework business in Brazil. To extend our exercises far and wide, we have created explicit plans and yearning plans that we would like to accomplish through worldwide participation with financial specialists. The essential thought of ​​business is as per the following.

Goldario tries to saddle the intensity of inventive blockchain innovation and supplant the whole ecological cycle: legitimately from metal mining to completed retail items and achievements. Utilizing blockchain, cryptography and keen agreements, it looks to expand trust between the gatherings to the exchange, permitting exchanges to be led in straightforward registers. Moreover, through the mix of cutting edge innovations, for example, AI, AI, enlarged reality, geographic area following, blockchain and keen agreements, Goldario offers budgetary instruments that are unmatched in the conventional money related present reality.

ABOUT GOLDARIO PROJECTS.

Goldario is the principal stage on the planet that tries to change the ecological pattern of mining valuable metals (gold), stones (emeralds), adornments and retail organizations. This monetary instrument is an advanced piece of gold and emerald mines and its own gems creation for the worldwide market.

Our view

We intend to reform the whole eco-style of the adornments business utilizing the most recent advancements, to be specific blockchain, cryptography, keen agreements, AI and Fintech. We endeavor to make a biological system in which it will be simpler for people - both customary buyers and institutional financial specialists - to put resources into organizations that are bolstered by a full environment of valuable metals, stone production lines, adornments and retail, just as keep up security and examining. openings and liquidity.

Our main goal

Goldario endeavors to turn into the world's driving foundation of decision for shoppers and ventures occupied with the gems business. It plans to empower clients to acquire and claim physical mining rights, adornments makers and gems retailers from around the globe, and in this manner make the benefits that underlie the potential help for Goldario tokens (GLD) .

https://preview.redd.it/mmzbikudwq051.png?width=1913&format=png&auto=webp&s=15d6f209af1d9ad42eb6d37f02832efc5a8dea6e
HOW IT WORKS?

● John likewise prescribed selling GLD tokens to one of his companions, Tom, who chose to purchase a one hundred thousand US dollar token. As a commission, he gets a specific level of the sum bought by his companion/referral.

● Now a similar referral is Tom, and afterward different companions, for example, Emma, ​​who made a speculation/buy in the measure of GLD Tokens in the measure of $ 5,000. Consequently, while Emma's buy will allow Tom the option to get a prize, a specific level of the prize will likewise be given to John as the primary connection.

GLD TOKEN FEATURES:

● Scalability.

GLD tokens can process any number of exchange volumes - whenever - without the chance of disappointment or the presence of indications of stoppage. In contrast to the brought together money related structures of uses and installments, there is no single purpose of disappointment, and all exchanges are open and straightforward to the whole network.

● Decentralization.

GLD tokens are decentralized and network possessed. Done on the Ethereum arrange, which ensures the nonattendance of an essential issue of disappointment or bureaucratic control.

● Security.

For advanced and arrange resources, GLD Token uses Ethereum-based proof of work to affirm exchanges, guaranteeing that no programmers or gatecrashers can control any exchanges.

● least expense

GLD tokens will offer charges that are fundamentally lower than other huge online installment frameworks that permit clients to send, get or execute any GLD tokens with insignificant expense.

● Interchangeable

GLD tokens can be handily traded with a pronouncement, for instance, US dollars, euros and pounds. Moreover, it can likewise be reclaimed with different merchandise, for example, valuable stones and gems through the Goldario stage.

● Passive salary

Access automated revenue by buying and holding a GLD token. After a specific time, the salary got from pioneering movement is circulated among the holders of tokens, which are relative to their property.

● Utilities

In contrast to conventional cryptographic forms of money, the expense of which relies upon hypothesis, flexibly and advertise request, GLD tokens are legitimately utilized in the Goldario environment, where they can be traded for metals and valuable stones.

● Simple

exchange trade and move of GLD tokens is as straightforward as sending an email. You should simply download your current ERC20 Token help wallet.

● straightforwardness

The straightforward, irreversible nature of the blockchain gives open access to data whenever, giving a totally straightforward procedure, precise information records and equivalent necessities for everybody.

Promoting STRATEGY

The executives at Goldario accepts that advertising and network advancement assume a significant job in the accomplishment of the stage, particularly in crowdfunding ventures that include non-experts. Arranging a procedure for advancing our task from the absolute first day is significant, and we utilize a multilateral methodology that amplifies constrained assets and utilizations different conventional and non-customary showcasing channels.

Here are a few systems we will utilize:

● extraordinary showcasing words

Sound-related promoting is the point at which one individual notices a particular item or task to someone else and a message is sent. At Goldario, we will offer rewards and promoting efforts to our token individuals and, as a prize, to the individuals who contribute prizes, with GLD tokens who endeavor to accomplish the objective by growing our locale base.

● COMMUNAL OFFERS

One of the most significant parts of a crypto venture is its advancement so that each and every individual who holds it has a spot to spend it. As a stage that legitimately takes part in the creation of metals and valuable stones for gems, Goldario exploits by offering direct utility by tolerating GLD tokens as an installment technique for valuable stones and metals. Furthermore, in our endeavors to make GLD a mass installment and cost-sparing system, our promoting group has directed thorough research and built up the best procedures for individuals from varying backgrounds that are remembered for every single segment datum.

● CRYPTO EXPOS

To pass on our message to potential speculators, brokers and the overall population, we lead data battles the world over and consistently take part in digital currencies and blockchain gatherings. We are supporting a major occasion, and our profoundly proficient promoting group is effectively taking part in this presentation to guarantee the most extreme change of GLD tokens.

● PRESS RELEASE

We likewise normally distribute public statements on different money related news and driving innovation locales. Moreover, we likewise endeavor to impart our venture to driving distributers and authors and along these lines get inclusion for the task.

● STRATEGIC ALLIANCE

We likewise keep on working with significant shippers around the globe who advantage the two gatherings and help increment the receipt of GLD tokens.

● CELEBRITY SUPPORT

To guarantee most extreme open reach, we lead occasions and ads where our GLD tokens are bolstered by eminent VIPs from the music and film businesses.

● Register ICO/IEO site

We additionally endeavor to enlist our mass deals on all driving IEO/ICO locales. This will assist us with arriving at an immediate objective crowd, individuals who are keen on digital currency.


https://preview.redd.it/16iktu96xq051.png?width=533&format=png&auto=webp&s=23946a3988a32a19aa7839cabd534910dee285a3
GLD TOKEN

GLD Token is an ERC20 token utilized on the Ethereum blockchain arrange, which works as a monetary instrument that offers advanced parts for the primary gold and emerald and residential gems creation for the worldwide market. A token can work as a store of qualities, and furthermore permits shared qualities ​​to be traded in a situation without trust dependent on a square chain.

Available to be purchased

The facts demonstrate that Goldario is definitely not a conventional startup since it procured shares in Emerald and the gold mine, possesses a gold creation and cleaning plant and has a committed group devoted to this. In any case, to actualize the Goldario biological system as per the guide and empower network interest in the environment, Goldario will offer introductory coin contributions or mass deals for open support.

Individual TOURS

The primary stage, to be specific the Private Round, will be given to singular merchants, institutional speculators, investors, Indonesian residents and associations occupied with metallurgy and valuable stone creation. During this cycle, a unique instrument for getting extra prizes will be received, the subtleties of which will be distributed on the site https://goldario.com .

Fundamental SALES OF IEO

At this stage, Goldario the executives will furnish clients/financial specialists with the fundamental open deals round, for example mass deals, which will be completed as a component of a dispatch launchpad offer for a specific trade or offered straightforwardly through CRM programming. Token deal exercises will be trailed by an immediate trade of Goldario tokens from their commitments.

TOKENOMICS Token

financial offer - GOLDARIO (ICO token cost: 1.00 USD per token)

● pre-deal

will be executed utilizing shrewd agreements and system addresses, which will be sent with directions by email and might possibly be on the page. Presale is restricted to 100 million tokens.

● token deal

will offer 300 million tokens to people in general as delicate tops. They will be sold under brilliant agreements until each of the 300 million are sold inside 4 months, whichever starts things out. Costs will be set in etheUS dollars. The purchaser will get an ERC20 token toward the finish of the deal or promptly during IEO.

● Minimum increment for pre-deals and deals consolidated

It will cost around 300 million dollars, in front of deals and assessed broadcasting in real time (around 03 million tokens)

● A test of about $ 1 billion. The United States is laden with extraordinary challenges for this undertaking.

Showcasing endeavors will get 90 million tokens, or 30 percent. This is to pay the wages of everybody and organizations that endeavored to make and deal with a business token. 1 percent of these tokens will before long be accessible for trade - these are prize and serious prizes. The staying two percent will be hindered for 3 months after the finish of the deal.

Group SALE INFORMATION
Token distribution ● 5%: sold via block processor
● 15%: distribution of bonuses at BP
● 20%: change in sales
● 10%: sale discount
● 50%: country representatives
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Guide

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https://preview.redd.it/ewtlrwmsxq051.png?width=699&format=png&auto=webp&s=23b0f0dd8ddaa3572b0b7b91f58aa47ac1bdf5f0
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https://preview.redd.it/d1zqabo3yq051.png?width=759&format=png&auto=webp&s=1047faef07948501d21c0a56a9edf84c2c606936
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2020.05.15 21:46 Amy_de_l-ABC Zoom H1 recorder and Audacity - recording cutting out

EDIT: After reading u/datum-1's comment (thanks, u/datum-1!), I've made my best attempt at a summary (and sorry about the wordiness in the original; I'm super detail-oriented and have trouble summarizing, and I don't always catch myself).
...wow okay I just read back over my original post and the reason y'all were having trouble is that I apparently never stated the actual question in the post. *facepalm* I am clearly too tired for life today :P Sorry!! So, here is the actual question:
I'm trying to record a virtual duet with a friend. I've put my karaoke track and her audio into Audacity, and am recording in a separate track. However, at a certain point on all of my test recordings, the audio starts randomly cutting out, and I'm not sure why. (See "UPDATE" section at bottom of post for what this sounds like, if I'm still not explaining well enough. :) )
Equipment: Audacity and Zoom H1 Handy Recorder
--
ORIGINAL POST (a.k.a. The One That Has A Million Details):
Hi :) I was hoping someone would be willing and and able to help me out a little here, haha.
Please note that I am pretty darn new to audio stuff. I have used Audacity a decent amount, but mostly for very basic editing (amplifying, adding fade in/fade out, that kind of thing). I haven't really tried recording with it before, or at least not to this degree. Also fairly new to the H1--or rather, I have used it some, but haven't messed with the settings really until now (it's my dad's, and he set it up the way he liked it). If you can explain why you think I should try a particular thing, that's awesome and definitely preferable, but please keep it as much in layman's terms as possible? Haha.
Things I have already tried:
So...yeah, I'm stumped. I can ask my dad for help if/when he has time, but he isn't an audio expert or anything, and he basically told me that he'd just be Googling to figure it out as well, so I figured I'd take a two-pronged approach on this, and ask for his help as well as posting here.
Here's a screenshot of Audacity with the relevant bit highlighted (this is with all the settings changed that I mentioned above--so lo cut on, auto level off...looks like I may've turned the Audacity mic volume back up?? Not sure why I did that...but pretty sure the input level on the actual recorder was still down--like maybe about 60 or 70 if you can get anything from actual numbers?--and in WAV format with 48kHz sampling rate).
https://preview.redd.it/7nbghx0dfzy41.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=dddd8baea18b5cf1468e0f0d8cc3cbcca023109e
It is interesting to note that when I was doing my test recordings, the problems all happened in approximately the same place. I'm not sure if that's because I was, like...using similar dynamics at that point in the song or moving in the same way or something, or if it's some weird software thing, or?
I'm not sure what-all else you might need to know, but the Audacity project I'm working with currently has 3 audio tracks (one for background music, one for the other person in the duet, and the one that I'm recording in) as well as a label track for the words. Oh, and most of the ideas for the changes I made came from the second post on this page.
I have not tried recording in a different way yet to see if Audacity is the issue. If you think that's necessary, let me know and I'll give it a go--although if I do need to do that, just FYI, I don't currently have other software for this kind of thing (well, I mean, the voice recorder that comes with Windows...idk if that would be any good?), so I might have to use the recorder by itself rather than connecting to the computer? Which is fine, but yeah.
If it would help, I can export the relevant bit of audio or something and give you a share link so you can hear it. Let me know if you think I ought to do that (I would do it now, but I'm a bit pressed for time and have taken longer than I meant to typing this out). SEE UPDATE BELOW
Thanks much in advance for any help you can give, and feel free to ask questions if you need more info!
--
UPDATE: Since I had a minute, I went ahead and exported (approximately) the bit of audio that's highlighted in the above screenshot and uploaded it to SoundCloud. Here's the link. I hope this helps to clarify things further if I'm still not explaining well enough! XD
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2020.04.12 22:50 CuteBananaMuffin The Abduction and Manipulation of Humans Using Advanced Technology PART 1/20

by Valdamar Valerian
Excerpted from MATRIX II
(from "The Dulce Book" by Branton)

INTRODUCTION
In July 1947, the radar at the Four Corners area in the southwestern United States affected and took down an alien disk. It was entirely by accident.
(As a result of the electromagnetic beams -- upon which the radar system was based -- interfering with the EM systems of the craft. - Branton).
The disk landed near Roswell, New Mexico. It was to be the first of two disks that would crash in that area. On board, scientists and military personnel found several dead aliens beings. An immediate analysis of their species could not be determined, but the aliens [referred to as the EBAN] had both reptilian and insect-like qualities. Also on board were found the remains of several military personnel. As far as we knew, this was the first major indication that human beings were being taken by an alien species...
In December 1988, former Navy intelligence officer William Cooper interviewed a man who said, "I don't know everything, but it's way out of our of control. To tell you the truth, I'm afraid of what's going to happen. Giant underground shelters are being built under Groom Lake and in other places."
In reference to the claim by some that these aliens are 'harvesting' humans on planet earth for their genetic, bioplasmic and secretional properties, Valerian states:
"There is no doubt that the government policy of secrecy makes the 'harvests' easier for the Greys. Governments, by definition, are supposed to protect the public welfare. Obviously, something went very wrong here, and it appears that THE NAZI SS INTELLIGENCE-BASED CIA HAD A LOT TO DO WITH IT... (Note: The CIA was reputedly established by Bavarian Illuminati representative Allen Dulles in collaboration with Bavarian Thule Society representative Nazi S.S. General Reinhard Gehlen. The CIA/NSA, working on behalf of the corporate socialists in America who according to Antony Sutton and other economists financed the Bolshevik and Nazi revolutions, in turn infiltrated the Industrial-Military system and in turn the largely unelected/appointed EXECUTIVE branch of the U.S. government via their coup d'etat of the Executive branch which occurred simultaneously with the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Since Kennedy's death, most if not all of the U.S. Presidents have been members of global financial organizations like the Council on Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commission and the Bildebergers... all of which do NOT honor American's Declaration of Independence but instead advocate a "New World Order" to be implemented with the assistance of a United Nations military force. - Branton) "These malevolent aliens have allied themselves with the secret world government whose thirst for power and system survival is probably only unequaled by the malevolent aliens themselves... The malevolent aliens have given advanced technology to the 'government', manipulated, lied to, deceived, and generally used our secret government for their selfish and inhumane alien ends."
AN ALIEN BASE IN NEVADA
The continuing situation with regard to M.P., a twenty year old woman in Las Vegas, has brought many interesting factors to the fore. Her first abduction occurred when she was five years old in December 1975. She has experienced over 400 abductions since that time, an average of two a month. Around 1987, she found that she was able to retain more and more memory of the activities. She is also an excellent artist with a photographic memory. There is sufficient evidence that she has been on various craft and she has also been taken to underground facilities in the mountains in Arizona and under the desert near Paradox, Nevada...
The Nevada facility is located near the Paradox area. She was also brought to this facility in 1987. The facility is not as large as the one in Arizona. Reichian programming devices were used on her in attempts at programming.
The facility is generally described as one oriented toward genetic work. Large cylinders containing amber, pink, and light-blue fluids were noted. These cylinders appear to be similar to those detailed in Matrix II. All cylinders contained humanoid forms. The cylinders containing light-blue fluid contained forms that looked human. The others contained hybrid/genetic variant humanoids. The last time she was brought to this facility was on January 22, 1991, where they attempted to get her to agree to not revealing data, as the Sirians were aware of her detailed interaction with us. She refused.
The Sirians said something to the extent that she was "affecting the balance in the Confederation". If that is so, then we're certainly ALL for it.
(Note: These are probably humanoids from Sirius-B, who have formerly collaborated with the Reptiloids/Greys of Draconis-Orion. Although many Sirians continue to collaborate with the Orionite forces who have commandeered their 'collective', other Sirians seem to have been experiencing a major conversion to the Andromedan-Pleiadian Federation's non-interventionist policies, now that many of their former treaties with the Reptiloids/Greys are falling apart because of betrayals on the reptilian side. A huge armada from Sirius-B is supposed to arrive in the Sol system around 2004 to engage the Orion-Draconian forces -- which have since taken full control of many of the Sirians' former joint-operational bases throughout this system. As with the 'Nazi' element on earth, there are apparently agents from Sirius-B who still wish to maintain collaboration with the Reptiloids... if not for the fact that they are operating under near total mind-control, then for the fact that they see a joint effort between the elite power-cults of Sirius, Bavaria and Orion as the only means to carry out their totalitarian plans for planet earth on behalf of their supposed astral "ascended master" leaders, especially in the face of Federation opposition. This may be what was meant in regards to the "balance in the Confederation". - Branton).
Upon her return she discovered that she had some pain on the right side of her abdomen.
At this facility, she saw Sirians, Greys, and in another part of the facility she saw what appeared to be U.S. Military members. There were other beings there that she described as "light beings" ('light' does not always make 'right' - Branton). Her description of them was that they had a humanoid form but there were no details in the form -- it just emitted a light:
In view of the current state of knowledge, it is thought that these were beings of a least 5th density. The beings hovered around and monitored the Sirians and Greys all during her stay at the facility. The human military at the facility wore black uniforms...

INFORMATION ON THE GREYS
* The United States [Executive branch, not the Congressional branch of government] made one or more agreements with a species described as the tall Greys, and has agreed not to interfere with alien operational plans in trade for technology. Agreements made in 1934, [1954], 1964, and 1972... * The Grey clones are...performing biological work which necessitates the termination of various species on the surface of the Earth, which is not governed or protected under the treaty made with the US 'government'. Underground installations are the only 'sovereign' areas under the treaty... * Researchers will recall that the disk that crashed in 1947 at Roswell, New Mexico had several reptilian species on board, as well as the body parts and clothing of several Army-Air Force officers... * Species objectives appear to be founded on a rigid domination survival-based social order, where their 'religion' is science, their social structure is geared to obedience and duty, their military concepts are grouped around conquest, colonization, and domination through covert mind-control programs... Their basic 'game' appears to be to use nullification and domination to control the leaders of various targeted civilizations. They accomplish this by taking out the leaders and replacing them with entities they can control... The function of the 'elite' humans, as far as the Greys are concerned, are to decimate portions of the human population so that the remainder can be easily controlled. Hitler is a prime example...
APPARENT SOCIAL STRUCTURE: One by-product of their social memory complex is that any kind of decision takes a while to make, since none of the [Grey] clones seem to have the innate ability to act independently of the other cloned species. This social structure has no room for 'surprises', and the "best laid plans of mice and man" can be totally wrecked if it comes into contact with anything outside its operational context. The tall Greys seem to be less prone to the frailties of the system than do the smaller Greys...
GREY STRATEGIES AND OPERATIONS: The Earth is somewhat unique in that it has a broad spectrum of beings of several density levels and race-types. It is inhabited inside, outside, and in the atmosphere in thousands of hidden little pockets and time-stream projections. The process of conquering a planet involves [the] location of beings that vibrate in resonance with their vibrational frequency. These located beings are then told that they are the Elite or Chosen Ones who will conquer and lead the human race and rule the world for their Grey masters. Often the located beings are physically taken aboard craft and given physical examinations, provided with implants, given accelerated data through inculcation methods that will help them serve the Greys. The function of an Elite is to decimate portions of its own race in an effort to reduce populations to manageable limits so the remainder can be easily controlled. The Nazi-Jew scenario is a good example of the Grey modus operandi. They also controlled the Japanese Empire and are generally responsible for most aggression between human groupings on the planet
(The Greys use "divide and conquer" tactics... although it should be mentioned that since W.W.II and the cessation of the alliance with Bavaria, the Japanese have been interacting more and more with the Koldasians, a relatively benevolent humanoid race that reportedly inhabits the alternate "antimatter universe", and who apparently maintain close ties with the Andro-Pleiadean Federation. - Branton). Humans have generally been deceived into playing victim-games of negativity, self-limitation, self-denigration and destruction. The games that the Greys are trying to enforce are games of coversion and secrets, as well as hidden standards. All activities are conducted on a "playing field" which is limited by the attention span and the scope of awareness of the Players.
GREY MILITARY OPERATIONS: [Include] colonization of unprotected civilizations which are unaligned with any other group in space. They use planets for supply depots, slave sources, and biological materials. The exercise of domination and the enslavement of planetary populations is expressed as Service-to-Self [as opposed to Service-to-Others]. It creates power for their group, but inherent in this process is a rapid dissipation of power in that civilization, due to the limitations imposed by the games of limitation and negativity enforced on the popularity. According to what research has revealed, there are certain methods and plans that have underscored the literal invasion of Earth by various Orion based species. Typical scenarios might be: The target planet is time-tabled for invasion.
The base station is moved within range. (disguised as asteroids, planetoids, or comets but recognized as alien craft by minor course alterations that can and have been detected, for instance in regards to the asteroid Geographos, Phobos, Hale-Bopp, etc. - Branton)...
Leaders are approached with population control programs or solutions to survival-related problems. Leaders are convinced that they represent "an Elite" group that has been chosen "by God" to rule the populace for the good of God's empire. (in many cases however, the elite do not believe in any 'god' other than themselves. - Branton).Look at any theocratic [or religiocratic] country on Earth and you can see this...
APPARENT REASONS FOR ORION BASED OPERATIONS: In accordance with "service to self" philosophy, goals are sought that will achieve more power for the 'elite' or ruling class; it is important that more and more slaves be made, so that the psychic energy can be drawn off to feed the madness of the "power elite". Domination and nullification is the basis of the game of struggle and conquest. It is a stable datum to negative Orion-based groups that empires can only be built and maintained on the backs of broken "game-pieces", and oiled by the blood, sweat, and tears of "worthless entities too decayed to be useful for any other tasks" and too rebellious to trust in more cooperative ventures...
PRIMARY PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GREYS: The larger Greys apparently have some vestigial reproductive capability, and some of the hybrid species that have been cross-bred with the [taller] reptilian species have full reproductive capability. The brain capacity is estimated to be between 2500 and 3500 cc, compared to 1300 cc for the average human. Due to the cloning process, the neural matter is artificially grown brain matter, and the Greys have known technology that enables them to insert memory patterns and consciousness into clones in any manner or pattern that they wish. The Greys consume nourishment through a process of absorption through their skin. The process, according to abductees who have witnessed it, involved spreading a biological slurry mixture that has been mixed with hydrogen peroxide [which oxygenates the slurry and eliminates bacteria] onto their skin. Waste products are then excreted back through the skin. Many abductees have noted that the Greys have a distinct series of odors... The larger Greys have a more pronounced nose... According to some government sources, these extraterrestrial biological entities called themselves the EBAN. It is with the larger Greys that elements of the government made a series of diplomatic agreements in the 1950's, 60's and 70's
(Note: Other sources say that the agreements made between the Scottish Rite faction of 'government' date back at least to 1933-34 and possibly earlier in regards to the native subterranean reptilian species. The large Greys are apparently cross-breeds between the tall "lizard-like" saurian bi-peds and the smaller "grey-type" saurian bi-peds. Although the 'treaty' was initiated with the "tall greys", the very fact that a reptilian hierarchy exists -- small greys working for taller reptiloids -- explains why the shorter greys have also been seen working with 'government' officials. - Branton)
REPRODUCTION PROCESSES OF THE GREYS: Innumerable witnesses have confirmed the presence of underground facilities that the greys use for breeding. These facilities, of which Dulce is the most famous, provide for genetic work of all descriptions. Humans are brought to these facilities on a continuing basis in order to provide a genetic pool from which to extract DNA and RNA mixtures that will contribute toward the efforts of the Grey species to strengthen their genetic structure...
BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS AND ANIMAL MUTILATIONS: In some cases, humans are killed and tossed into the vats [the slurry mixture mentioned above]. In two cases, dead humans have been seen floating in vats right next to the body parts of cattle. Human mutilations appear to be less obvious than cattle mutilations, although both still continue to this day.
(According to Don Ecker, the Justice Dept. is making a concerted effort to keep the "human mutilations" out of the media. - Branton).

RESEARCHER BEATEN UP BY MIB/CIA -- MAY 1990
Researcher Jefferson Souza [Vegan - Ummo contactee] arrived at a UFO Conference in May of 1990 bearing information that included data about which corporations were producing helicopters with gravity assist, as well as information about their use in cattle mutilations. Four men appearing like classical MIB (Men In Black), took the documents, and threw him back on a plane to New York.
It may well be that CIA/Delta/NRO involvement in the mutilations might be more significant than supposed.
(One report has stated that in the forests SE of Los Alamos, NM, witnesses have observed nightly caravans of cattle-trucks entering a particular mountainous area known for its unusual and 'alien' Amer-Indian pictographs'. These caravans reportedly arrive following or preceding overflights of dozens of UFO's. When the cattle caravans left the area they were reportedly empty... Is the government trying to 'appease' the huge 'nest' of Greys that reportedly operate below the Los Alamos region? This sounds hauntingly familiar to the ancient legend of St. George, who delivered the inhabitants of Silene, Libya from a fierce dragon who was in the habit of terrorizing the city. The King of Silene ordered the residents to offer their sheep and cattle to the beast in order to appease it. After all the livestock were depleted the king ordered the inhabitants to draw lots, and he or she on whom the lot fell would be that day's sacrifice to appease the monster. One day the King's own daughter drew the lot, and with great anguish he allowed the guards to take her to the post outside the city. When the dragon approached to take his prey a white horse with a silver-clad knight quickly approached. He brandished a sword and a long spear, as well as a shield with a red cross emblazoned on a white background. The Christian knight made quick work of the beast before the 'worm' knew what had hit him, and delivered the city from this reptilian scourge. Whether the story is true or allegory, the message is clear! Eventually the time comes when one must cease from trying to appease the enemy, and by the grace of God Almighty go forth and destroy it! - Branton)
Now the question remains as to why the government would be carrying out or participating in this large scale [cattle mutilation] program. Whose interests are being served?

BREEDING FACILITIES UNDER DULCE
Pictures in the Dulce labs portraying wombs with little fetuses and the clear tubs with little aliens in them are believed to portray the cloned worker class of beings that are pictured on the cover of 'Communion'.
The tall Greys are the dominant species and are basically "test tube" species. The clones are synthetically produced with biological materials [much of which owe their source to life-forms on earth]...
The brain [of the Greys] has been described as having many more lobes than the human brain. There have been previous references to crystalline networks that have been found in the brains of some of the alien autopsies. It is believed that the network has a functional relationship to telepathic communication and acts as a function in what is essentially a HIVE mind.
Each of the Grey clones has an individuality, but it is much LESS pronounced than in the human, where tendencies toward expanded 'awareness' and shared consciousness are minimized through cultural conditioning, programming, and basic cranial differences in structure.
PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME GREY-REPTILIAN SPECIES
AUTOPSIED BY UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT:
[Alien Life Form]: Term used by the government to describe the Greys in terms of being a malevolent life form. The deal with the Greys is that their field around their body is different to ours to the point where merging of the fields ends up creating physical symptoms [the "body terror" mentioned by people like Whitley Strieber]. The field around them is in direct opposition to ours. It is an ANTI-LIFE field, as these specific species are on a devolutionary spiral. They are akin to soldiers of fortune, and 'offer' their advanced technology in trade for things they require. They are experts at manipulation of both the human body [through manipulation of the fields] and the human mind. They require blood and other biological fluids to survive.
They abduct humans and animals in order to acquire these fluids. They implant small devices near the brain which potentially gives them total control and monitoring capability. These devices are very difficult to detect. The analysis of the devices by technical staff has produced a description that involves use of crystalline technology combined with molecular circuitry and these ride on the resonant emissions of the brain and the various fields of the human. Information is entrained on the brain waves. It appears that all attempts to remove the implants [1972] have resulted in the death of the human...
(This is usually due in part to the fact that the implants are attached to major nerve centers, and once attached the nerve tissues grow in and around the implant essentially making the implant a PART of the nervous system. When relatively unsophisticated medical procedures are used in an attempt to remove the implants, major nerve centers are damaged as a result, causing severe injury or even death. - Branton)
Various descriptions of the ALF's relate the following characteristics:
Between 3 to 3 1/2 feet in height, erect standing biped, small thin build, head larger than humans, absence of auditory lobes [external], absence of body hair, large tear-shaped eyes [slanted approximately 35 degrees] which are opaque black with vertical slit pupils, arms resembling praying mantis [normal attitude] which reach to the knees, long hands with small palm, claw-like fingers [various number of digits -- often two short digits and two long, but some species have three or four fingers], tough grey skin which is reptilian in texture, small feet with four small claw-like toes, organs that are similar to human organs but have obviously developed according to a different [mutational] process; a non-functioning digestive system; two separate brains; movement is deliberate, slow and precise; alien subsistence requires that they must have human blood and other biological substances to survive.
(other indications suggest that originally they did not 'require' human blood, but once having used human blood for this purpose they have since acquired a racial 'addiction' to this 'vital' substance. This goes far beyond just mere physical hunger, since the Greys/Reptiloids tend to feed off the human life-energies resident within human blood plasma, in what may be considered a vampirial type of hunger for human vital fluids. - Branton).
In extreme circumstances they can subsist on other [cattle] animal fluids. Food is converted to energy by chlorophyll by a photosynthetic process [this supports results gained from autopsies at 29 Palms underground base where it was seen that their 'blood' was greenish and the tissue was black]. Waste products are secreted through the skin. The two separate brains are separated by mid-cranial lateral bone [anterior and posterior brain].
There is no apparent connection between the two. Some autopsies have revealed a crystalline network which is thought to have a function in telepathic [and other] functions which help to maintain the group-consciousness between members of the same species.
Functions of group consciousness in this species does have a disadvantage in that decisions in this species come rather slowly as the matter at hand filters through the group awareness to those who must make a decision.
THE GREYS AND THE REPTILIANS
FROM AN ANONYMOUS ABDUCTEE
This initial report is concerned with two groups of aliens: Greys and Reptilians. There are several different kinds of both Greys and Reptilians, but for now I will simply refer to them as single groups. Both groups live on this planet or beneath its surface and in space. They have been here for a long time.
The Greys are also 'working' for Reptilians, relative to the abductee as an individual and to the human race as a whole. They have been used by the Reptilians as the middlemen, doing the work and exposing themselves to us on behalf of and instead of the Reptilians.
(although reptilian-based, the 'saurian' Greys are less visibly so, which is why they have been chosen to interface with abductees. - Branton).
The Greys are consistently referred to as a mercenary force...
Some Reptilians... eat [humans] like we eat chicken. In the United States, there are rumors of great, underground food-storage rooms full of preserved human bodies. Sometimes the rumor has it that the bodies are those of children. I asked the Greys why, if this was true, would it be children? I was told that it is not only children but also adults that Reptilians eat. Children are preferred because they are generally unpoisoned by substances like caffeine, nicotine, alcohol and other things adults are saturated with, as a group...
The Reptilians seem to have little regard for us as living beings. [They think that we are as ugly and repulsive to them as we ever portrayed them to be, and that we, the human race, are "as valuable as weeds."] However, they do seem to consider some of us valuable property. One gets the feeling they will continue to USE us as they see fit, or, if we ever become a real problem as a group, they would sooner wipe us out than deal with it. They do not fear us, considering themselves far superior to us by all comparisons. They supposedly consider the surface of this planet to be a poisonous, inhospitable environment and 'allow' us to live here (as lifestock? - Branton), since they live below the surface and in space. [We and our surface environment function as a physical buffer or living shield around their home underground.]...
(Note: Some sources claim that many of the Greys and Reptiloids are moving en-mass to massive underground centers below major human cities for the sole purpose of having a "human shield" in order to protect themselves from earth-penetrating weapons which their Andromedan, Pleiadean or other enemies might otherwise use to destroy them. This would also provide them with a ready source of human 'biological' material for whatever purpose they 'require'. - Branton) Socially and culturally, Greys and humans are VERY different. [They] fear us because they know we are potentially powerful beings. However, they insist that they 'own' us: They say they created us (LIE! - Branton) and therefore have the right to do what they will with us. Beyond this original 'right' to interfere with us, they say they have additionally earned the right through their control. Because they can control us on an individual and cultural basis both physically and mentally, they say they "own us".
These attitudes are PROPAGANDA. Their control over us in any capacity is ultimately very frail due to its very nature.
(depends on us NOT KNOWING that we are being controlled - Branton).
Their control is based on intimidation and advanced technology. As we become more aware, we are harder to control, harder to lie to, harder to confuse. Our technology would definitely be competitive to their theirs if we had access to it. Much of the technology we would need to effectively overcome this situation exists now.
(within the alien-manipulated military-industrial establishment which is part of the 'secret' or 'corporate' government technocracy - Branton).
It just isn't made available to the PUBLIC, for economic reasons, as well as "national security." The preceding statements about the Greys are based on conversations with them and long observation of them. Impressions about the Reptilians are more general. I have not engaged in conversations with the [taller] Reptilians, though they have sometimes spoken to me. Most of my experience with them does not include direct communication between me and them.
Almost all of my consciously recalled memories of Reptilians also include Greys, who usually do the communicating between us. Often the Reptilians seem to be present during abductions as observers only, standing off to the side of the action, just watching.
THE GREYS AND THE BAVARIAN THULE SOCIETY
The Greys were ultimately behind the [Bavarian Gnostic] THULE Group in Germany during the war, and no doubt were ultimately behind German policy of internment and termination of the Jews during the war. Think of the emotion that was generated in the concentration camps!
(Note: Reptiloids and Greys 'feed' off of negative emotions like fear via a type of osmosis. Joint-Operational underground bases maintained by the Reptiloids/Greys reportedly exist beneath Germany as they do beneath the U.S.. - Branton)

THE PASTURING AND USE OF SURFACE EARTH HUMANS
BY JASON BISHOP III
Most "UFO buffs" think that their efforts will lead to some sensible attention by the 'Authorities' to the broad problem that UFOs present... the problem of 'are they Invaders?', 'what do they want here on earth?', and all those other nagging questions. They come to Earth for things surface people don't even know about.
Earth is on the ancient space trade routes. They come to bases [Cavern City Complexes] and they mine, manufacture, and do some genetic manipulations to form various subservient cross breeds.
THE REPTILIANS: For the most part, we are dealing with another species that is humanoid in shape, but Reptilian in heritage. Their leader elite are the 'Draco'. They even have special 'wings', which are flaps of skin, supported by long ribs. These can be folded back against the body. They are also known as the "Dragon Race" and their symbology usually includes the Winged Serpent. There are elements of their species which do not have wings -- the "soldier class" of the species and 'scientists'. They are all "cold blooded" and have to have a balanced environment to maintain body temperature. The "soldier class" of the species can bury themselves in the ground and wait long periods of time in order to ambush their enemy. If need be they can survive on one very large meal ever few weeks or even once a year [when hibernating or in suspended animation]. As a species, they are well suited for space travel due to their ability to hibernate. These reptoids have scales which protect them from moisture loss. They have no sweat glands. The scales [scutes] are much larger on their backs, making the skin waterproof. The scales elsewhere on the body are more flexible. They have three fingers with an opposing thumb. The eyes are catlike and large. They have twin nostrils at the end of a short stubby muzzle. They are mostly meat-eaters. The mouth is more like a slit [lipless], but they have teeth which are differentiated into incisors, canines, and molars. They average from 6 to 7 feet in height. The Reptilian [amphibian] humanoids have been interacting with Earth for ages. Many contactees and abductees repeatedly describe an insignia of a Flying Serpent on a shoulder patch, a badge, a medallion or a helmet. The Serpent Race lives under the ground.
THE GREYS: The Reptilian species directs the efforts of the worker class, which are about 4 feet tall. These are currently referred to as Greys or EBE's, and are the largest category likely to be encountered by surface humans... These beings [the Greys] operate very efficiently in the dark. Their eyes are more sensitive to ultraviolet light. They have the ability to control their heart rate. The normal heart rate for a Grey is above that of a human. The skin seems to have a metallic content and an unusual cobalt pigmentation. Many have no external sex organs. Some have been bred to have them.
(Note: Most reptiloids that have been encountered have been described as having no exterior sex organs, however on a few occasions reptiloids HAVE been described as having external sex organs. In nearly EVERY case that I have heard of where 'these' reptiloids were encountered, the abductee was a female human who was forcibly 'raped' by the reptilian within an underground base or even within their own homes during the abduction-encounter - Branton) There are accounts in the legends of Babylon, India, Egypt, South America, Central America and elsewhere that reveal the influence of this other species on our own. One variety of Reptilian crossbreed is particularly negative and dangerous. This variety, who work with the Draco... do not 'eat' in the same way humans do. These hive-like beings use synthetically produced substances, mixed with blood. Thus slurry is sometimes mixed with Hydrogen Peroxide, which kills the foreign bacteria and viruses. They may also be feeding off the "life essence energy" of the substances. They also seem to 'feed' off nuclear energy, and have manipulated humans into developing sources of nuclear power that emit radiation. Nuclear methods involved use of neutrons to create radiation. Methods that use positrons emit no radiation. The 'Greys' [the short, "Big Heads"] are mercenaries. They interface with humans in "Secret Societies" and within the Military/Governmental Complex. An interconnected 'WEB' manipulates the surface Earth cultures.
COMMAND PROGRESSION: DRACO [Winged Reptilian] -->DRACO [Non-Winged -- white, brown, green skinned, etc.] --> Greys --> Humans [collaborators].
UNDERGROUND BASES AND WAY STATIONS: The caverns beneath Calvert, Texas are being used for some type of operations. Farmers and ranchers in the area have reported hearing peculiar noises coming from deep beneath their feet. "Individuals living 5 or 6 miles outside Calvert have been repeatedly driven out of their homes by the sound of generators." In April 1973, students camping in the San Gabriel Mountains on the western edge of the Mojave desert "felt uneasy" and then saw a giant man-like creature. Researchers from the UFO Research Institute were called in. They discovered the sound of geared machinery and what might be compared to a hydroelectric plant coming from "beneath the forest floor". Sounds of operating machinery have been recorded coming from mines in the area after midnight.
THE YAKIMA INDIAN RESERVATION: Southeast of Tacoma, Washington is the Yakima Indian Reservation. Of special interest is one particular section 40 miles wide and 70 miles long, bordered on the west by the Cascade Mountain Range.
It is an area of canyons and heavily forested regions. The valley is essentially closed to the public and special permits are required to enter. Forestry personnel have heard [Dorthea Sturm] unusual sounds for years coming from underground. One area of intense activity is known as Toppenish Ridge. From deep within the dark, restricted canyons, 'glows' have been seen. This area is not accessible by foot or vehicle.
Low-flying silver cigar-shaped craft have been seen to disappear into the deep canyon known as the Middle Fork of Toppenish Creek.
submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.04.06 08:20 datumelectronic Technically Modified Torque Meter to Note Accurate Values

Technically Modified Torque Meter to Note Accurate Values
With the years of expertise, experts have developed a Torque Meter to help you observe and note the accurate value of torque in your machinery. Visit the website and explore the range of torque measuring solutions now!


Torque Meter
submitted by datumelectronic to u/datumelectronic [link] [comments]


2020.03.26 20:26 datums Introducing the new /r/Skookum moderator team, and a new direction for the community...

We are happy to announce that /Skookum has a new moderator team.
Our goal is to turn this community back toward it's roots - technical discussion, collaboration on projects, and assistance with problems of all kinds.
We intend to foster an inclusive environment where helping someone to safely wire an electrical socket is just as important as expert level advice on computational fluid dynamics.
Nobody should feel that their problem is too basic to post here. Anyone posting will have the people below at their disposal, at the very least.
This community is overflowing with knowledge and expertise looking for a place to happen, especially now.
In the interest of kicking that off - if you have something you're working on, post it in the comments below, and we'll be on that shit yesterday.
The new moderator team -
CollegeFurTrader
I am a soon to be laid off truck mechanic and purveyor of lithium batteries in Florida. I have a degree in mechanical engineering and 7/8 of degree in electrical engineering. In the past I've been employed as a fabricator, welder, field service tech, electrician, electrical engineer, auto mechanic, and bus driver. My Time is occupied by my toddler daughter, random projects, and shade tree mechanic work.
SSL-3
I've worked professionally with wires doing all kinds of things for decades, and computers for another decade more -- from complex mobile 12-volt systems like ambulances, to jail door systems, to medium-big RF systems, and from a 90s PC with a modem to a few racks of purpose-assembled gear that could always scale if needed. I love learning new things and decided long, long ago that I was better off investing in tools, documentation, and instruction, rather than hiring people to fix my stuff for me. I enjoy helping others to solve problems and learn.
Deepskull
I like sports, but I haven't really participated myself in some time, not since my BMX jousting accident in '05.
Since then I stick to helping my buddy down at Sanchito's fencing. He's my best pal and tags along with me when I go out on my wind turbine activism escapades. Occasionally do some speed-dating down at the rec-center. I have a recent love interest, Dulce - shes a peach. What else is there to say?
I am an industrial mechanic. Half monkey, half machine whisperer; fair-weather pragmatic diagnostician, mostly delusional.
MrBlankenshipESQ
I'm mostly an RC'er with aspirations for a home machine shop. Currently working on converting an electric RC semi truck to use a SOHC engine, and building a couple airplanes. So I know a thing or two about avionics, microcontrollers, electronics, and small part fabrication.
I'm also a shadetree mechanic that's dabbled in doing it professionally but finds the time crunch far too stressful to deal with.
ArchDemonKerensky
I'm a jack of all trades, master of a few. In addition to doing a tour in the US Navy as an Aviation Ordnanceman, I've also been employed as a welder, heavy equipment operator, electrician, millwright, machinist, fabricator, engineer, surveyor, commercial driver, salvage diver, mechanic, carpenter, plumber, and cook. Usually multiple at the same time.
In terms of education and certifications, I have a number of welding certifications and equipment licenses, as well as degrees in Chemistry and Materials Science & Engineering. I'm also currently working on a degree in Mechanical Engineering.
datums
I'm somewhat knowledgeable about machining, land based vehicles, and electronics. Quite knowledgeable when it comes to high fidelity sound systems, human biology, and cognitive science, as if anyone here gives a shit about the last two.
Co-founder of ZaPrisco, a small manufacturing business that caters to high end keyboard enthusiasts, though I'm barely involved in that these days.
Also the founder of this subreddit, and fairly savvy when it comes to social media in general.
YouTube's Chris DePrisco will also be pitching in a bit, particularly to offer help on the finer points of CNC machining.
We have also decided to implement a rule requiring that all image posts be accompanied by a comment from OP providing context. This is intended to limit low effort content. An automod has been put in place to remind people of the new rule when the post images.
So, let's get this shit started.
Who's got something they could use some help with, or a project idea they'd like to pursue?
submitted by datums to Skookum [link] [comments]


2020.03.17 13:01 MrPayDay Ralf Adam, a game design expert and veteran with reputation, actually started LAUGHING when the podcast topic switched to Star Citizen

Edit: The main sc sub downvote train arrived 🧐
https://www.gamespodcast.de/2020/03/15/runde-258-warum-spiele-verschoben-werden-ft-ralf-adam/
"Auf ein Bier" is the biggest and most successful Videogames podcast in german language. It was founded by the ex Gamestar guys Andre Peschke and Jochen Gebauer. Their recent podcast is talking about deadlines, postponed games, project management and production of video games and the definition of "Alpha" and "Beta" and so on. After 29 minutes, they started to talk briefly about Star Citizen, and that is the moment where Ralf Adam....
(https://www.slideshare.net/RalfCAdam/ works in the game industry in 1993. Worked for publishers and developers in different positions, among them Infogrames/Atari, Sunflowers Entertainment and JoWooD Productions, Disney Interactive, Eidos and Vivendi Universal as well as writing for numerous games magazines. Experience and expertise in producing, writing, game design, localisation and project management ), one of the most known game design veterans with expertise and reputation and who actually is coaching and teaching game design and production (https://www.macromedia-fachhochschule.de/news-details/datum/2019/12/02/neue-vortragsreihe-1000xp-startet-am-campus-leipzig-mit-ralf-adam-tiger-team-production.html)....
....actually starts laughing. Please let that sink in when you can read in the sc reddit that so called "I am a game developer, and everything is fine with Star citizen developement!"-wannabes are telling us that they do understand game developement, but everyone of 1.) Something Awful 2.) the refund sub 3.) anyone who critizes SC/CIG/Chris Roberts does not.
Ralf Adam, an actual videogame industry veteran and real expert in game design and production (in contrast to all made up self claimed "developers" of the main sub) laughed a fucking minute after he heard the words "Star Citizen", and this is all you need to know.
submitted by MrPayDay to starcitizen_refunds [link] [comments]


2020.03.12 07:32 Ciubhran Avskeda Anders Tegnell

I dagens politiska samhälle i Sverige så är det inte sällan man ser folk i positioner där de inte hör hemma.
Anders Tegnell är ett perfekt exempel på detta.
Allting började förra veckan när han påstod att "kulmen komma vara nådd på fredag", då han antydde att det värsta vad gäller smittspridningen av COVID-19 i Sverige skulle vara över.
På fredag kväll pudlar han och påstår att han glömt att inkludera en variabel i sin uträkning, och ändrar sig och säger bestämt att på måndag-tisdag så kommer kulmen vara nådd.
Han säger alltså vid två tillfällen ett absolut datum då han bestämmer att "efter detta så är det värsta över". Bägge dessa datum har uppenbarligen varit felaktiga.
Idag är det torsdag, och mellan måndag och onsdag så dubblerades antalet smittade i Sverige. Man behöver inte vara en expert inom detta område för att förstå att det inte kommer börja sakta ner efter en sådan ökning. Hur denna människa fått detta jobbet måste bero på någon form av politisk nepotism, korruption eller inkompetens (min gissning).
Nu har han även gått ut och kastat skit på Italien, och påstår att de inte var förberedda nog att hantera COVID-19, och att Sverige är betydligt mycket mer förberedda. Sverige har länge haft problem med vården, och vi har cirka 2/3 av antalet sjukhussängar per capita jämfört med Italien. Betydligt lägre antal intensivvårdplatser, som är det som det kommer behövas kraftigt av inom en snar framtid.
Hur mycket tjänstefel kan en politiskt tillsatt yrkesperson få göra innan de får sparken?
Jag hänvisar till Jan Eliasson.
EDIT: Ytterligare ett tillägg till Tegnell's Greatest Hits
9 Mars: 261 (https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyhetea/JoyBe8/varsta-coronadagen-hittills--58-nya-fall-bekraftade)
11 Mars: 503 (https://www.aftonbladet.se/nyhetea/3Jgxj9/senaste-nytt-om-coronaviruset/)
submitted by Ciubhran to sweden [link] [comments]


2020.02.25 10:33 sandeshpatil Global Organic Phase Change Materials Market Growth,Revenue Analysis & Forecast To 2020 – 2026

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2020.01.30 20:34 nikkigreyton DIGITAL GOLD: A LEGIT AND NEW WAY TO INVEST IN GOLD

DIGITAL GOLD: A LEGIT AND NEW WAY TO INVEST IN GOLD

DIGITAL GOLD: A LEGIT AND NEW WAY TO INVEST IN GOLD

Introduction Dear partners, today I will continue displaying you an endeavor called DIGITAL GOLD. This endeavor is known through a buddy of mine, and I will uncover to you a few information about this one of a kind task. This endeavor is the perfect blend of Blockchain development and physical gold. The undertaking was made by a gathering of experienced specialists in various domains: blockchain advancement, budgetary viewpoints, account, worldwide trades. Concerning placing assets and venture into gold, money related masters as of now have a wide scope of options, from gold ETFs, to gold stocks, or even to buy physical gold. Regardless, what unequivocally is the inspiration driving gold? In addition, for what reason should financial specialists put into the gold market?
It is these two request that have made two social occasions of limiting gold monetary masters throughout late decades. One gathering said that gold is essentially an old relic, never again as weighty as previously. In a front line money related condition, where paper money is the most notable, really the fundamental favorable position of gold is the material that makes pearls and gems.
In spite of what may be normal, another social event guarantees that gold is an improved trademark worth, making it so novel and essential that money related experts put it into their portfolio. To fathom the inspiration driving gold, we should return to the starting notes of the gold market. Disregarding the way that the recorded scenery of gold began in 3000 BC, when the old Egyptians made jewels, it was unmistakably in 560 BC that gold was seen as a money. Around at that point, merchants expected to make a standard and easy to-exchange kind of money that could rework purchases. Meanwhile gold diamonds has been commonly seen and used over the globe, so making a gold coin engraved is apparently the reaction to the essential request.
THE BENEFITS OF GOLD IN THE ECONOMIC
So if gold is never again guaranteed for the US dollar (or diverse money related structures on the planet) by then for what reason is it still so critical today? The essential answer is that in spite of the way that gold is never again the point of convergence of every common trade, notwithstanding it has a tremendous situation in the overall economy. To understand this idea, you simply need to look at the spare asset report of national banks similarly as other cash related establishments, for instance, the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Starting at now, these affiliations are accountable for keeping around one-fifth of the world's gold stockpile. Additionally, some national banks are in like manner endeavoring to add to their present gold stores.
GOLD IS THE RISK INSURANCE TOOL
The likelihood that gold jam wealth has ended up being continuously noteworthy in the money related condition where theorists face dollar worth declines and high volatility(because of rising product costs). Really, gold has been instrumental in foreseeing the two circumstances. If swelling manufactures, gold normally rises. Right when monetary authorities comprehend that their money is losing regard, they will begin to place assets into considerable assets that keep up their value. The 1970s were a prime instance of the worth move in gold as expansion rose.
GOLD PROTECTING PROPERTY
For what reason is gold so critical in a propelled economy? In perspective on how Gold is the primary method to keep up and store riches in excess of countless ages. Likewise, clearly, this is something paper money in classifications can't do that.
GOLD IS A SAFE SELECTION
Despite whether it is strains in the Middle East, Africa or anyplace else, indisputably political and money related trickiness is a reality that occurs in our front line budgetary condition. Subsequently, money related experts routinely consider gold to be a protected option during the hour of political and financial unsteadiness. Why? Humanity's history reliably turns around the breakdown of domains, upsets, and the downgrading of money related structures. In those events, money related authorities who hold gold can guarantee their preferences, and now and again, they even use gold to discard the unsettling influence itself. As such, at whatever point there is an event or news related to precariousness, budgetary experts habitually buy gold as a secured choice.
DIGITAL GOLD

https://preview.redd.it/4ehxgy1axyd41.jpg?width=640&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2c01a915ec68174ff377500c4b852f564c3b016c
DIGITAL GOLD is a kind of Cryptocurrency, Stablecoin which is made when joining physical gold and blockchain advancement. That suggests 1 digital gold will identify with 1 gram of physical gold 99.99%. In addition, all the more expressly, this proportion of gold will be safely taken care of in vault. Essentially appreciated, physical gold has been digitized and its code is DIGITAL GOLD. Digital gold is a response for the present economy, through this stablecoin you can use it for different purposes: exchange, buy/sell, store. With each number of digital gold codes, the release will resemble the proportion of physical gold guaranteed. It might be said that the digital gold is the Stablecoin you are looking for, a code completely kept up by physical gold, a holy person that empowers you restrict shaky worth differences in the back and forth movement economy, especially in the Cryptocurrency circle
So what is the inspiration driving this undertaking ?? I think the DIGITAL GOLD gathering is staggering, fundamentally in light of the fact that they see various issues with physical gold:
At this moment the exchange, obtaining/selling physical gold occurs in various spots on the planet, anyway you understand that the peril will turn out to be a lot of when the amount of gold trades constructs, the danger I have to state here is : physical gold risk (disaster, hurt), especially the hazard for your own one of a kind life. Reliably an enormous number of theft and murder cases are related with gold.
The utilization of blockchain development to make new systems is stimulated in gold exchange. Making safe shops with versatile trades is the inspiration driving this errand. Your hazard will never again be available when trading with DIGITAL GOLD token. This token will make the method continuously versatile and less complex for gold trading trades.
THE FEATURES OF DIGITAL GOLD
DIGITAL GOLD token is confirmed in physical gold. The amount of tokens gave will contrast with the proportion of physical gold in stock. This proportion of gold will be taken care of incredibly protected. Gold costs will be revived by the market and you can totally mind the web. The utilization of blockchain development in physical gold digitization: Blockchain, the fundamental square chain name is a different leveled database that stores information in squares of information that are associated by encryption and develop after some time. Each datum square contains information about the acquaintance time and is associated with the past square, with a period code and trade data. Blockchain is proposed to restrict data change: Once the data is recognized by the framework, there is no genuine method to change it. Each DIGITAL GOLD code is given subject to keen agreements, the amount of tokens is compelled and controlled to ensure the token will identify with The proportion of physical gold is accessible. The utilization of sharp agreements will empower the undertaking's establishment to work even more effectively and quickly.
Low trade charge: you can use the notice code DIGITAL GOLD consequently, buy/sell, at especially insignificant exertion. This is a significant complexity for you, especially for people who reliably trade gold. With the old structure, you will lose a lot of costs when you trade; You should believe that the store will open to trade, anyway with the digital gold stage you can buy/sell at whatever point you need!
Prosperity: for financial specialists, the security of their endeavor is a top concern. With DIGITAL GOLD tokens bolstered by physical gold and by and large safe stockpiling. The proportion of physical gold will be verified by assurance (driving underwriter), this will fabricate prosperity to 100%. Money related masters can have a feeling of security when buying/selling this token.
Customer security: the field of information development is winding up progressively standard and conspicuous wherever all through the world, provoking the extending risk of digital ambushes. In this way, customer information security is a critical issue of each adventure. The utilization of Blockchain development into this endeavor adds to reducing the peril of framework ambushes and information security of customers.
CONCLUSION
With the explanation and the DIGITAL GOLD undertaking platform you can totally develop your portfolio, unfaltering quality, 100% affirmation, customer information is stayed quiet, upheld by gold material. I believe DIGITAL GOLD will be a sharp choice for money related budgetary pros amidst the helplessness of the present cryptocurrency economy.
For more information about the project visit:
Website: https://gold.storage/
Whitepaper: https://gold.storage/wp.pdf
ANN Thread: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5161544
Telegram: https://t.me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.com/gold_erc20
Medium: https://medium.com/@digitalgoldcoin
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/golderc20

https://preview.redd.it/gber0g2dxyd41.png?width=539&format=png&auto=webp&s=f0a1ce27def21449642609e988aca858355fd6f4
author :
Bitcointalk Username: NikyGreyton
Bitcointalk Profile Link: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2319682
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2020.01.30 14:02 spacebucksadvisory Top 7 Benefits of Accounting Outsourcing

Top 7 Benefits of Accounting Outsourcing
In case you're encountering money related vulnerable sides or see zones of progress that will assist you with accomplishing your objectives, it could be an ideal opportunity to consider redistributing your fund and bookkeeping capacities.

https://preview.redd.it/9jo2wr3fzwd41.jpg?width=1000&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8e35edea31d5f469103467da2941dbbcc9362cad
What is outsourcing accounting?
Accounting re-appropriating is contracting a specialist organization – like Been Garter – to assume the bookkeeping duties of your business.
Bookkeeping or accounting administrations may differ contingent upon the supplier and the product utilized, however you can pick accounting outsourcing companies to re-appropriate, which to keep in-house, and what results or announcing you hope to get.
You can likewise pick what level of access you'd prefer to have to the bookkeeping programming.
For what reason would it be advisable for me to re-appropriate?
Possibly you're burnt out on the desk work. Perhaps you can't do-it-without anyone's help any longer. Or on the other hand, perhaps you've attempted it, enjoyed it, yet the specialist organization or programming wasn't exactly right.
Possibly you don't have the opportunity or cash to procure somebody for taxation services, however need bookkeeping and money related aptitude. Perhaps you need better information and further developed innovation.
The reasons are your own, however the advantages you can procure from re-appropriating are great.
Advantages of bookkeeping re-appropriating
1. It's financially savvy
Re-appropriating your bookkeeping is commonly less exorbitant than procuring somebody in-house. It spares you the time and cash required to select and prepare, and furthermore alleviates you from covering finance charges, pay, protection, benefits, time-off and so forth.
Furthermore, most firms fold the expense of the product into the administrations they give. You can enlist for the administrations you need at the value you can bear.
2. Drive center business capacities
Employing an inside bookkeeper won't really drive income.
Redistributing your bookkeeping permits you to put cash toward exercises that will expand income –building up a site, building stock, employing staff in deals offices, improving current items, and so on.
3. Utilize a main programming
A ground-breaking and versatile programming, for example, Sage Intact, can make confounded, tedious bookkeeping a snap.
A standard programming can deal with your center or essential financials, however an incredible programming can take on increasingly complex capacities like income acknowledgment, stock administration, and task bookkeeping, just as associate with business applications you as of now use.
Completely research and test the product you'll be utilizing. Would it be able to scale with you? Is it cloud-based? What would it be able to accomplish for you now and later on? What sort of access will you have to the product?
4. Work with bookkeeping specialists
Your taxation advisory services experts who are prepared, experienced, and learned in fund and bookkeeping. They can assist you with bettering comprehend your accounts, give direction, and handle complex circumstances and errands.
There's true serenity realizing blunders are being decreased, acceptable bookkeeping rehearses are being performed, and you approach a more significant level of skill.
5. Access to dependable information
Great money related information ought to be the foundation of your business choices. At the point when you redistribute your bookkeeping and access a ground-breaking programming, you can gather the information you care about, and assemble outlines and reports around it.
Bid farewell to building and breaking down reports to respond to explicit inquiries. Your information will respond to your inquiries and enable you to settle on development driven choices with certainty.
6. Increment controls and decrease misrepresentation
In the event that the greater part of the business' bookkeeping capacities are in the hands of a couple of individuals, your business is at a more serious danger of encountering extortion.
Moving your bookkeeping to an outsider lessens this hazard and considers more noteworthy interior controls. Furthermore, your bookkeeping experts will have the option to recognize where there are issues – hailing mistakes and advising you of any irregularities.
7. Tie in extra administrations
On the off chance that your specialist co-op offers different business administrations, for example, finance, assessment, and retirement plan organization, you could without much of a stretch feed every single related datum into the bookkeeping programming for more noteworthy permeability.
There could be a chance to package administrations, and you gain genuine feelings of serenity realizing these administrations are dealt with by experts, in one spot.
Re-appropriating your bookkeeping may appear to be overwhelming, yet when you select the correct accomplice and experience the advantages recorded above, it'll change how choices are settled on and which choices are made.
Your field-tested strategies can turn out to be progressively key and increasingly viable, and you can breathe a sigh of relief realizing that your way to progress depends on monetary precision and supported by experts.
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2019.12.20 08:03 willliams1 DIGITAL GOLD STABLE COIN REVIEW: THE GOLD TOKEN = GOLD METAL STORED IN BULLIONSTAR

DIGITAL GOLD STABLE COIN REVIEW: THE GOLD TOKEN = GOLD METAL STORED IN BULLIONSTAR
Gold Stable coin; closer to you
Dear allies, today I will continue displaying you an endeavor called DIGITAL GOLD. This endeavor is known through a buddy of mine, and I will unveil to you a few information about this errand.
This endeavor is the perfect blend of Blockchain advancement and physical gold. The endeavor was made by a gathering of experienced specialists in various zones: blockchain development, monetary perspectives, cash, overall exchanges, ...
With respect to placing assets into gold, money related authorities by and by have different other options, from gold ETFs, to gold stocks, or even to buy physical gold. In any case, what definitely is the inspiration driving gold? Additionally, for what reason should monetary experts put assets into the gold market?
It is these two request that have made two social affairs of negating gold monetary pros over the span of late decades. One social event said that gold is only an out of date relic, never again as notable as before. In a bleeding edge monetary condition, where paper money is the most notable, really the primary preferred position of gold is the material that makes pearls.


https://preview.redd.it/goge46u5lq541.jpg?width=270&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=4c101a2cdf2d2361363c38332dc27ceba746d00e
In reality, another social affair asserts that gold is an extended natural worth, making it so novel and fundamental that monetary pros put it into their portfolio.
To understand the explanation behind gold, we should return to the starting phase of the gold market. Notwithstanding the way that the historical scenery of gold began in 3000 BC, when the out of date Egyptians made diamonds, it was particularly in 560 BC that gold was seen as a money.
Around at that point, shippers expected to make a standard and easy to-exchange sort of money that could streamline purchases. Then gold jewels has been comprehensively seen and used over the globe, so making a gold coin engraved is apparently the reaction to the essential request.

THE Significance OF GOLD IN THE Cutting edge Financial Foundation

So if gold is never again guaranteed for the US dollar (or diverse financial structures on the planet) by then for what reason is it still so critical today? The fundamental answer is that in spite of the way that gold is never again the point of convergence of each run of the mill exchange, in any case it has a basic circumstance in the overall economy.
To understand this idea, you simply need to look at the spare resource report of national banks similarly as other budgetary establishments, for instance, the Worldwide Money related Reserve (IMF). At present, these affiliations are responsible for keeping around one-fifth of the world's gold stockpile. Also, some national banks are in like manner endeavoring to add to their present gold stores.

GOLD Insurance IS THE Safeguarding OF YOUR PROPERTY
For what reason is gold so huge in a forefront economy? Considering how Gold is the fundamental method to keep up and store wealth in excess of a large number ages. Likewise, clearly, this is something paper money in divisions can't do that.

GOLD IS THE Hazard Protection Device
The likelihood that gold jam wealth has gotten progressively critical in the money related condition where monetary experts face dollar cost rots and high development (due to rising item costs). Irrefutably, gold has been instrumental in dodging the two circumstances. In case growing extends, gold consistently rises.
Exactly when money related authorities comprehend that their money is losing regard, they will begin to place assets into significant assets that keep up their value. The 1970s were a prime instance of the worth move in gold as growing rose.

https://preview.redd.it/u9qsmbydlq541.jpg?width=300&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=423f5e016481ba0c11d8661697caeece79dc309a
GOLD IS A Protected Choice
Notwithstanding whether it is strains in the Center East, Africa or wherever else, clearly political and money related instability is a reality that occurs in our forefront financial condition. Thusly, theorists normally consider gold to be a secured option during the hour of political and monetary precariousness.
Why? Humanity's history reliably pivots around the breakdown of areas, upsets, and the weakening of money related structures. In those events, money related masters who hold gold can verify their advantages, and from time to time, they even use gold to discard the distress itself.
Thusly, at whatever point there is an event or news related to feebleness, monetary experts consistently buy gold as a secured choice.

https://preview.redd.it/dugx4aohlq541.jpg?width=275&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e3c96a97ed0e86664acc70fa210527c9916cbb02
DIGITAL GOLD
DIGITAL GOLD is a kind of Cryptographic money, Stablecoin. Digital gold is made when joining physical gold and blockchain development. That infers 1 digital gold will contrast with 1 gram of physical gold 99.99%. Likewise, more unequivocally, this proportion of gold will be safely taken care of in stock.
Simply fathomed, physical gold has been digitized and its code is DIGITAL GOLD. Digital gold is a response for the present economy, through this stablecoin you can use it for a few, different purposes: exchange, buy/sell, store, .. With each number of digital gold codes The release will resemble the proportion of physical gold guaranteed.
It might be said that the digital gold is the Stablecoin you are looking for, a code completely kept up by physical gold, a legend that energizes you restrict wobbly worth changes in the rhythmic movement economy, especially in the Cryptographic money economy.

https://preview.redd.it/bb5o6rtglq541.jpg?width=239&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2c5e2f92dc36db1f9ccf25081296333fbaed5db8
So what is the inspiration driving this endeavor ?? I think the DIGITAL GOLD gathering is shocking, fundamentally considering the way that they see various issues with physical gold:
At present the exchange, acquiring/selling physical gold occurs in various spots the world over, anyway you understand that the risk will augment when the amount of gold exchanges extends, the peril I have to state here is : physical gold danger (adversity, hurt), especially the risk for your own special life. Reliably countless thievery and murder cases are locked in with gold.
At present, the customary course of action of gold trading has gradually gotten unpalatable by awkward work area work, which takes a long time.
So the use of blockchain advancement to make new structures is upheld in gold exchange. Making safe shops with versatile exchanges is the inspiration driving this endeavor. Your risk will never again be open when trading with DIGITAL GOLD token. This token will make the strategy progressively versatile and less complex for gold trading exchanges.

https://preview.redd.it/i86admbvlq541.jpg?width=280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=379bcca49e308e75337b26f61628e79c5b552abd
WHAT IS THE Foundation OF DIGITAL GOLD?
WHAT IS THE Features OF THE Undertaking?
DIGITAL GOLD token is checked in physical gold. The amount of tokens gave will contrast with the proportion of physical gold in stock. This proportion of gold will be taken care of and set away incredibly shielded. Gold costs will be revived by the market and you can totally beware of the web.
utilization of blockchain advancement in physical gold digitization: Blockchain, the hidden square chain name is a different leveled database that stores information in squares of information that are associated by encryption and develop after some time. Each datum square contains information about the acquaintance time and is associated with the past square, with a period code and exchange data.
Blockchain is proposed to restrict data change: When the data is recognized by the framework, there is no genuine method to change it. Each DIGITAL GOLD code is given reliant on smart gets, the amount of tokens is limited and controlled to ensure the token will contrast with The proportion of physical gold is accessible. The use of shrewd understandings will empower the endeavor's platform to work even more effectively and quickly.
Inconceivably low exchange charge:
You can use the admonition code DIGITAL GOLD consequently, buy/sell, ... at amazingly insignificant exertion. This is a significant qualification for you, especially for people who routinely exchange gold.
With the old system, you will lose a lot of charges when you exchange; You should believe that the store will open to exchange, anyway with the digital gold platform you can buy/sell at whatever point you need!
Prosperity:
For money related masters, the security of their theory is a top concern. With DIGITAL GOLD tokens upheld by physical gold and all out safe stockpiling.
The proportion of physical gold will be verified by security (driving underwriter), this will extend prosperity to 100%. Budgetary pros can have a feeling of security when buying/selling this token.

Customer security:
The field of information advancement is ending up being progressively common and standard wherever all through the world, provoking the growing risk of digital ambushes.
Thusly, customer information security is a critical issue of each endeavor. The utilization of Blockchain advancement into this endeavor adds to diminishing the risk of framework attacks and information security of customers.

With the explanation and the DIGITAL GOLD endeavor platform you can totally develop your portfolio, security, 100% confirmation, customer information is kept private, maintained by gold material. I believe DIGITAL GOLD will be a splendid choice for cash related monetary experts amidst the helplessness of the present cypto currency economy.

Official Website: https://gold.Storage/
White paper: https://gold.Storage/wp.Pdf
Telegram: https://t.Me/digitalgoldcoin
Twitter: https://twitter.Com/golderc20
Medium: https://medium.Com/@digitalgoldcoin
Author: Wayrey2020
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?action=profile;u=2395392
submitted by willliams1 to ICOAnalysis [link] [comments]


2019.12.16 10:46 justanediblefriend The bad science and history of a science-focused story: What does Senku from Dr. STONE get terribly wrong despite the incredible manga’s attention to detail and being so well-researched? Its most central topic: What science is. (Part one, minimal spoilers.)

SUMMARY INCLUDED NEAR THE END. I feel I should emphasize because a lot of people missed the summary and it caused a great deal of confusion. Please see summary if you’d like to know what’s what.
Anyway, hi /badscience! I’m pretty much certain that nobody remembers me, but I used to have fun making these little high effort R1s back in the day here and people really liked them! I truly had a blast, and I recently watched a show that made me want to return here again. So, not that it will mean anything to anyone, but long time no see. :) Really had fun with this one and look forward to any polite thoughts, amendments, addendums, et cetera!

Introduction: What is Dr. STONE all about?

So, I just finished Dr. STONE, binged it all while studying for my physics final (which I did pretty well on, thanks for asking). It’s not perfect; I could definitely write a pretty detailed review on its aesthetic and moral accuracies and inaccuracies, but I’m willing to bet plenty of people more experienced with that sort of thing already are, and have repeated the points I’d have to make ad nauseam.
No, what really prompted me to write about Dr. STONE is not my assessment of how good the show is and whatever evidence I have to convince you that I’m right (though I do think it’s a fairly good show), but rather my claims about the accuracy of Dr. STONE’s claims about science. The show, for those unfamiliar with it, is about a teenager with superhuman scientific knowledge trying to see if he can (for reasons I won’t reveal) obtain our technology from scratch.
While he does this, the show explores a lot of topics central to what science is:
  1. Does science produce epistemic achievements about unobservables? That is, does science ever figure out anything? Are our best scientific theories approximating truth?
  2. What is the essence of science?
  3. Does science have a specific method to it? If so, what?
  4. Who should we, and scientists, recognize as having epistemic authority?
All of these are really important questions, but I can’t go over them all. Here’s a brief answer to each of them, and an overview of what I’ll be discussing in this post.
  1. Experts are about four times as likely to say “yes” than “no,” but there’s still a lot of disagreement on the issue. Furthermore, despite the expert consensus on the matter, scientists at large seem to disagree, with many leading scholars observing that scientists tend to hold or express what are called “anti-realist” attitudes.
  2. Not any of the main answers prior to the last few decades.
  3. No, “the scientific method” is a myth (though fortunately, people are listening more and more to experts on the matter) and there’s likely no such thing, though often useful for teaching those unfamiliar with science about it.
  4. There’s disagreement, but there’s been a stronger push away from hard distinctions between observers and subjects in terms of epistemic authority, and naïve notions of objectivity. Much research shows that they have an ironic tendency of moving us away from the objective truth.
I could talk at great length about all of these issues and how the shows explore them. I’m especially passionate about 4. But I’ll be going with 2, and briefly, 3.
I should clarify that I don’t think the show (and presumably manga) is wildly inaccurate, bordering on pseudoscience or anything. Indeed, it’s specifically the fact that the manga is so well-researched, accurate, and pays so much attention to detail that it makes for a good subject of analysis. I mean, who would want to see me give a detailed analysis of how Ant-Man or Avengers: Endgame is at odds with science? I think everyone can tell the films were playing it a bit fast and loose with quantum mechanics (and classical mechanics, and their own mechanics, etc.).
But Dr. STONE can be so accurate that where it gets things wildly inaccurate becomes especially interesting. It’s actually so good that instead of writing a paper like my professor asked for for my final assignment, I wrote a Dr. STONE (and Back to the Future) inspired short story that explores the four issues I just listed above. I won’t be sharing that story, of course; it was a rushed, 3-day final project, but this should speak to just how much I fell in love with elements from this show.
So. What is the essence of science?

How Dr. STONE drops the philosophers’ stone: What Senku says

Senku makes a lot of offhand comments about what science is. While the show proposes several positions with respect to all four topics above, I’ll be focusing on the things relating to topics 2 and 3. Some stuff worth going over are Senku’s claims that:
Some of these, I might mention or comment on in passing while saying quite a bit more on the others. So, what does Senku get right and what does Senku get wrong?

Is Senku right about hypothesizing, experimenting, and replication? Let’s find out.

Is Senku right about hypothesizing, experimenting, and replication? Let’s find out.

Senku claims that science involves hypothesizing and experimenting over and over, slowly, to refute another character’s claim that science was epistemically failing them. Is it true that these are necessary (Senku seems to be claiming that these are necessary rather than sufficient conditions for science; the latter claim would be a bit more untenable) conditions for science?
There’s a lot to be said about whether hypotheses and experiments are necessary to science, but I think I’ll give Senku those since I think the last part is a bit more interesting (and it’s a bit harder to adjudicate what exactly Senku means with the former components, and some ways of interpreting it might run into issues with cases like Bell’s theorem).
Science seems to centrally need replication and reproducibility, does it not? That’s why, after all, the purported replication crisis we’ve had for some time now seems so fundamentally troubling for science.
But as historian of science Friedrich Steinle will note, while replication is important, it’s not so essential that science can be accurately described as the process of hypothesizing and experimenting over and over. Sometimes, you hypothesize, do an experiment, and there’s no demand for replication at all, which, by Steinle’s lights, appears to be a correct judgment. So as it turns out, science’s relationship to replication and reproducibility is incredibly complex, and a great deal of research by historians, philosophers, and social scientists has been necessary to understand this relationship.
Steinle offers an example, noting that “The first vacuum pump was designed and put in operation by the Magdeburg mayor and former technical advisor Otto von Guericke in the 1650….Guericke’s apparatus was unique, complicated, expensive, and difficult to handle….In any case, it is clear that replication was not an issue for Guericke; but even without replication, no doubts were raised about his results. This had probably to do with his public performance that could be witnessed by a large number of participants.” There’s no reason to think that the common sense of scientists at the time was wrongheaded. The judgment that replication was unnecessary in the case of Guericke’s experiment, and unnecessary to science overall, seems to be a very strong datum that it is, in fact, not necessary. This doesn’t mean replication can be neglected or that it’s unimportant, Steinle himself will note that it’s clearly necessary in all sorts of cases. But here, it was not. The need for replication is incredibly contextual, and it is not a part of the necessary or sufficient conditions of science.
Indeed, there may be no such things as necessary or sufficient conditions of science. To elaborate, let’s consider the two related claims that science is fundamentally about figuring out underlying rules, and that it is the “pain-in-the-ass” method by which we discover those underlying rules.

Getting directly at the several millennia old issue: What is the essence of science, and what does Dr. STONE get wrong about science?

So, what about those two claims?
They’re actually precedented. What Senku is claiming here is rooted in a mish mash of historical events, but, as I’ll demonstrate, what these events teach us is actually that Senku is rather confused about what it is that science is. First, we’ll need to talk about the problem we’re grappling with here, then the history of the problem, and finally what we can draw from that history.

What’s the problem?

What we’re dealing with is called the demarcation problem, and it’s a problem we’ve been facing for over two millennia. It’s an incredibly important problem, and is the engine behind a great many events in intellectual history. The importance of this problem to those events is to such a severe extent that some historians or those interested in history have considered it disappointing that those events are taught without this incredibly necessary context.
So, what is the demarcation problem and why is it so damned important that it’s so central to so many historical events? Briefly:
Why is this so important? Well, science has a lot of epistemic weight. Since the ancient era, we listened to scientists. When they said something was going on, we took them at their word. That is, they have epistemic authority. We teach our children, as well as adults, what the results of science were and what scientists are doing today. We fund scientists. And we do all of these things to science in a way where we don’t do it to that which isn’t science; we rightly pass on scientific knowledge and not pseudoscientific knowledge, or at least we try or purport to.
Short of the infeasible task of getting all legislators and everyone else familiar with every branch of academia and its pseudo-counterparts, sufficient to distinguish science from pseudoscience, we’re gonna need a demarcation between science and non-science.
With that in mind, what are some things we want from a theory of what demarcates science and non-science? For ease of reference, I’ll call these desiderata from here on out.

The desiderata of demarcation

I’ll not only be going over the desiderata of demarcation, but why those desiderata are justified. A demarcation between science and non-science should:
  1. be in line with actual scientific practice,
  2. provide the necessary conditions of science,
  3. provide the sufficient conditions of science, and
  4. explain the normative properties of science (i.e. why it’s so valuable in all the ways we think it’s valuable.
So , why do we need to satisfy all four desiderata? I’ll consider them one by one.
(1) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem actually describe scientific practice? A solution should aim to fit within the sciences those paradigmatic sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. For consider if the demarcation only purported to show some non-actual, ideal demarcation. How would a solution do any of what we want it to then? If physics isn't a science, then our desire to take physicists to be authoritative cannot come from our desire to take scientists in general to be authoritative, since that desire corresponds to non-actual scientists.
(2) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem provide the necessary conditions for science? If it only gave the sufficient conditions, then certainly, we'd be able to know when some investigation isn't pseudo-scientific, is authoritative or worthwhile as such, etc. But now, we'd have no ability to know when some investigation isn't pseudo-scientific, shouldn't be paid any heed, shouldn't be funded, etc.
(3) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem provide the sufficient conditions for science? If it only gave the necessary conditions, then certainly, we'd be able to know when some investigation is pseudo-scientific, isn't authoritative or worthwhile as such, etc. But now, we'd have no ability to know when some investigation is pseudo-scientific, shouldn't be paid any heed, shouldn't be funded, etc.
(4) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem make it clear why science is valuable? If all we're doing is just coming up with some unimportant, formal distinction between fields, the problem wouldn't be any more important than demarcating between various sciences. Sure, we think there's a difference between physics and biology, but if it came to light that this wasn't the case, would it matter, and would everyone focus intensely on figuring out the demarcation? A solution to the demarcation problem should let us know what to fund, who to listen to, etc.
So, without further ado, here is the history of answers to this problem.

What have we already tried?

It’s a little ambiguous what exactly Senku is saying, but I think I have a good idea of what he might be trying to get at. So I’ll try to go over the history (with much thanks to Larry Laudan) independently of Senku’s thoughts, and then offer my comments on what Senku is trying to get across.

A. Aristotle

So, with the four desiderata in mind, what solutions have been provided throughout the history of philosophy and science to the problem? What did people think was the difference between science and non-science? We can trace this problem back to Parmenides of Ancient Greece. Concerns about the difference between episteme, or knowledge, and doxa, or mere opinion, loomed large. Aristotle provided a solution in his Posterior Analytics, positing that scientific knowledge had to involve indisputable, complete, absolute certainty. After all, if scientific beliefs are as uncertain as the rest of our beliefs, it's not obvious that there would be any hard divide between scientific knowledge and mere opinion.
He also thought that scientific knowledge must involve more than knowing how to do things, but knowing why those things work. I may know that trees lose their leaves in fall because of wind blowing them away, but this is not scientific knowledge. I must demonstrate how this occurs from more fundamental, general causes for scientific knowledge. So, scientific knowledge would be deeper, like the knowledge that less sunlight limits chlorophyll which is needed for leaves to stick to trees.
In other words, science had to be “derived from first principles,” so to speak. You can think of Aristotle’s “first principles” as something like the most basic laws of nature. What Aristotle had in mind specifically, was the prevailing geocentric theory having to do with elements. This part of history may be a little more popularly known than some of the other parts. Back in the day, the universe was thought to be geocentric; the Earth was at the center. Why? Was this just some sort of self-importance on our part? No, this seemed to best explain a lot of the phenomena we were witnessing. There were four fundamental elements. There were heavy, Earth-y things, or Fire-y things that went up. But up, down, etc. in relation to what? The Earth. Everything they observed seemed to have the Earth as a “telos,” as Aristotle would say. And they could see that. They could apparently sit down and observe, over and over, that all Earth-y objects have, as their telos, the Earth while Fire-y objects went away from the Earth.
So, they were certain of that much. There was no denying that there were four elements, that interactions between these elements and the rules they played by explained all phenomena. So, if it could just be demonstrated that something was entailed from these first principles, such a thing could be known for certain just like these first principles.
For science, we need principles which we are certain of and can logically derive facts of the world from, and we need to know what is fundamentally happening, on a deeper level, with our observations. This is what gives us absolute certainty.

B. Seventeenth and eighteenth century

By the time of Galileo and Newton, the need to figure out what was fundamentally going on at a deeper level was no longer taken to be needed for science. Galileo Newton refused to figure out why what he was saying was true, but all the same, he knew what he said of free-falling bodies was true with absolute certainty. Newton Galileo similarly didn't claim to know why the celestial bodies moved the way he said they did, but he said he was coming up with theories directly from the phenomena and so he was sure. He wanted to know why, but felt that was unimportant to his theories being scientific.
There were two driving forces behind dropping the second demarcative component devised by Aristotle, and keeping only certainty. First, it didn’t match up with the sciences. By this time, and even before, by the time of Ptolemy, mathematical astronomy was not at all deriving the trajectories of the celestial bodies from first principles. Astronomers were simply figuring out correlations between the movements of the celestial bodies and other bodies, the seasons, and so on. Explanation from first principles was no consideration at all. Some bit the bullet that astronomers just weren’t scientists, but this was a hard bullet to bite since it seems rather clear that we should listen to astronomers.
Second, there was an extremely worrying revolution that shook every scientist and philosopher to her core. The fall of geocentrism and the very first principles that all scientific knowledge had been derived from since then. After this, there was very little agreement over how it was that scientific knowledge was absolutely certain. René Descartes was someone who famously sought to show how we could have scientific knowledge. Certainty was very important, hence he dug down to find a belief in which he was certain, which he thought was his famous Cogito: I think, therefore I am. He thought we could derive all of science from this, and that’s how we could be certain of scientific knowledge. This wasn’t a fruitless endeavor. While he developed this attempt at demarcation, he discovered a lot that we still use to this day. For instance, it was Descartes who came up with science as being concerned with mechanisms and laws of nature, something physicists still do today. Prior to then, science was an investigation into teleology and purpose, not mechanisms and laws. This was a fundamental shift in our empirical investigations, one that has persisted in all sciences and one we can thank Descartes for.
When David Hume potentially showed that we couldn't even form any justification by which we could derive our predictions from just our observations beyond practical need, Immannuel Kant freaked out and spent the rest of his life coming up with an entire system of philosophy meant to show how science could be justified to a point of certainty as well as metaphysics as a science, which was concerned with only a small set of questions which could be answered in metaphysics (anticipating later attempts to throw out metaphysics, he too threw away much of it).
Newton, Kant, Descartes, Locke, Bacon, etc. argued all the time, then, over how it is scientific knowledge is infallible. But nobody denied that, of course, it was, if done right, infallible. If they just figured out how to do it right, they’d obtain certain knowledge.

C. Nineteeth century

By the nineteenth century, the fallibility of all of our beliefs became dominantly accepted, and so this solution could not do any longer. But if not complete and indisputable certainty, what could distinguish science from non-science? Researchers in the nineteenth century tried to demarcate science from non-science via method. There must have been some identifiable scientific method by which it could be shown that some pursuits were scientific and some were not.
The scientific method, they reasoned, could still be fallible, could still lead to mistakes, and so on, and so there was no threat of making the same mistake as the infallibilists of all the eras before them. But this method of testing would allow us to correct ourselves so that we could keep progressing despite our mistakes in our pursuit of knowledge. This attitude can be summarized in E.V. Davis’s pithy remark that, “"if science lead us astray, more science will set us straight.”
To be clear, the idea that there was some specific method of going about scientific investigation was not a new idea. But the idea that it was fallible, but still the best method of forming knowledge, was new. So, everyone tried to figure out what was in common between the sciences, and how it was that this method was better than other methods of trying to figure things out. Various proposals were made, but all of them were not only vague, they didn't even actually match what scientists were doing. Furthermore, nobody was able to explain how their proposed methods were better at forming knowledge than any of the other proposals.
Now, it is taken to be the case that there simply is no such thing as "the scientific method." Despite this, as noted in the following two links (also check their citations, especially Bauer's Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method), many science educators and the public at large still act as if it exists:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522609/ https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-method/#SciMetSciEduSeeSci

D. Twentieth century

So, certainty doesn't work. Fundamentality doesn't work. Methodology doesn't work. Maybe distinguishing science and non-science via semantics and meaningfulness would work.
This was a large part of the attempts of the members of the Vienna circle, a group of scientists and philosophers who started a movement known as logical positivism. Logical positivism was an incredibly complex movement, which few contemporary summaries do justice. But to give an idea of the movement, I’ll briefly discuss their motivations and two prominent formulations of one of their central theses.

FORMULATING EARLY LOGICAL POSITIVISM

Logical positivism rose with the apparent increase in success of scientific, logical, mathematical, and linguistic investigation. Feeling the need to throw out all of philosophy which did not appear to show the promise of similar success, logical positivists aimed to restrict what sentences were meaningful down to much less. This would, in effect, allow them to put front and center the sciences, the mathematics, and so on, throwing out what they took to be nonsensical metaphysics. You can consider this a birthplace of certain scientistic cultural elements which persist to this very day.
It should be made clear that the logical positivists came off the heels of an era of philosophy where philosophers would make claims like "The absolute is perfect" or "Nothingness nothings," which the logical positivists saw as just a bunch of pseudo-poetic nonsense, as evidenced by their lack of any form of measurable success against their scientific counterparts, who made claims like "This is the data we should expect from this experiment." The logical positivists were much more sympathetic to the latter form of claims. They really seemed to mean something and weren't just apparently pseudo-poetic word salad, and they really seemed to be getting at some sort of success.
Another causally relevant factor was that Bertrand Russell had a significant influence on how the logical positivists thought of philosophy in the Medieval era. Russell would often mischaracterize them because he really hated them, and many of the logical positivists simply trusted Russell’s account after Russell became a central figure in philosophy due to his immense contributions to logic, mathematics, and the philosophies thereof. So, they aimed to throw away much of medieval philosophy too, which we know now was a grave mistake on their part, perhaps even more problematic than their belief that the claims in the previous paragraph were meaningless word salad.
In short, scientific investigation was good, nonsensical metaphysical investigation, whatever that was, was silly.
With those motivations in mind, in what follows, I will explain early logical positivism and its death as briefly as I can. I can elaborate should anyone be interested in these problems, but I suspect nobody will be, and so I will cut myself short on each part.
Early logical positivists defended the verificationist criterion of meaning, meaning they believed that all declarative sentences were:
A. Analytic: True or false in virtue of the meanings of the terms (e.g. "All squares have four sides," "All ravens are birds"). B. Empirically verifiable: Logically entailed from some finite set of possible observation (sentences), or could in principle be verified by some finite set of observation (sentences). C. Meaningless. It’s difficult to make out exactly what this means, but importantly, it meant that something wasn’t worth investigating.
This account failed.
First, it couldn’t account for sentences of universal form, or sentences of the form “All F is G,” or “Each x is such that if it is F, it is G,” or to put it symbolically, “(∀x)(Fx⊃Gx).” For example, claims like “All stars emit light” or “All electrons repel other electrons.” These weren’t true or false in virtue of the meanings of the terms alone, nor was it possible for them to be entailed by some finite set of observations (or rather, the sentences for those observations).
Second, it couldn’t resist the addition of meaningless disjuncts. Via disjunction introduction, the purportedly meaningless sentences could be added on without problem.
Third, it made certain claims about the same very same thing, of the very same subject, etc. meaningful while their counterparts were meaningless. For example, “unicorns exist” would be meaningful under this criterion, while “unicorns don’t exist” would not be. Why? Well, you may know that all positive statements are logically equivalent to some negative statement. This is often brought up when someone debunks the myth that “you can’t prove a negative.” But perhaps less known is that you can take this further: negative existential statements are logically equivalent to some positive universal sentence, such that negative existential statements run into the problem of being sentences of universal form, and thus (as previously demonstrated) meaningless.
A demarcation which distinguishes between “unicorns exist” and “unicorns don’t exist” as scientific or not is deeply, and perhaps fatally, problematic.
Fourth, Gödel's theorem, often summarized as truth outrunning provability in formal systems, demonstrated that for any language with a finite set of axioms (and inference rules) that let you do some arithmetic, some sentences within that language can't be proven or disproven. This meant that, contrary to the hopes of the logical positivists, mathematics couldn’t all be accounted for analytically via a small set of syntactic rules.
Fifth, the early criterion was self-defeating. The criterion itself was neither analytic nor empirically verifiable. So, if the criterion was correct, then it was meaningless. Otherwise, it was incorrect. A.J. Ayer’s defense against this claim involved taking “meaningless” to be an academic term of art, simply defined a certain way, but that would mean that it has nothing to do with whether something is worth investigating or whether some research was worth respecting.
In short, early logical positivism faced a lot of problems, any of which were individually fatal to it, which prompted later developments.
Later on, many logical positivists (though I emphasize again the incredibly diversity of the movement) defended the translatability criterion of meaning, meaning they believed that all declarative sentences were either:
A. Empirically translatable: Translatable into an empiricist language, which, following Hempel, I'll denote as L. B. Meaningless.
What does it mean for a sentence to be translatable into language L? This can be left a little bit open, so that various languages are proposed which would satisfy the motivations of the logical positivists. But Hempel considers a specific proposal for L that he thinks at least approaches being a serious contender. L is any language wherein:
C. The vocabulary of *L* contains (i) logical expressions like "if...then," "not," "and," "or," "all," "some," and so on, (ii) certain observation predicates, where observation predicates are terms which designate directly observable characteristics like "green," "soft," and "taller than," and so on, and finally (iii) any expression which can be defined via the terms of i and ii. D. The syntax of *L* is the syntax of some contemporary logical system, like that of the Principia Mathematica.
If you don't quite get that, that's fine; the basic idea here is that there is this language which is entirely restricted to sentences which would describe something we can observe and investigate. It has to be about a direct observation, or something that a direct observation implies. If you say "Hey, my good is green," I can do some science on that claim and be like "Yep, sure is, Sam-I-Am," or "Nope, I am afraid you are outside of your mind with respect to the coloration of those items, my dear friend Sam-I-Am." If you say "Hey, this glowing stuff is radioactive," then even though I can't directly observe radiation, I can do some science on that claim too because it entails certain direct observations.
Hopefully, that gives at least some blurry shape to this criterion.
This solves all of the old problems (will elaborate if needed), but comes with fatal new problems.
First, it can’t account for dispositional terms like “fragile.” We can do this today thanks to the advent of possible worlds semantics (which is also how we know, with nearly unanimous consensus, that there exist other possible worlds), but even that probably wouldn’t have helped the translatability criterion.
Second, by the 1950s, plenty of highly sophisticated theoretical abstracts simply couldn’t be defined or reduced to observation predicates. These include terms like “wavefunction” or “electric field.”
Third, accounting for inductive inference syntactically made inductive inference relative or underdetermined by anything other than language. Inductive inference is central to our everyday lives. When you decided to eat food rather than drink arsenic for nutrition this morning, you inferred from what you’ve observed what experiences you haven’t observed would be like. Any theory that can’t account for this is wrong.
In response to problems like this, even later thinkers would allow for theories which had any observational component(s) at all, so long as the rest of the theory was broadly, appropriately, liberally related to those observational components.
But of course, research in metaphysics, much like theoretical physics, does do that. This marked the end of the anti-metaphysics and anti-philosophy of logical positivism, as it was demonstrated despite their best efforts that it seemed impossible to demarcate between the sciences and metaphysics. Later on, logical positivism died.
What were some other attempts worth mentioning in the twentieth century? Karl Popper thought that maybe the sciences were falsifiable while the non-sciences weren’t, but this position is as dead as logical positivism. Others thought that science was unique in that it progressed, while non-sciences didn’t, but this doesn’t turn out well at all either. Others interpreted science pragmatically and as having to do with its useful and practical applications, but this didn’t work out either.
Others have done great work on how these failed, but with this section dragging on a bit, I’ll just note for one of them that clearly, plenty of non-scientific fields progress, like literary criticism, metaethics, history, foundations of quantum mechanics, military strategy, etc. We certainly know more in those fields than we did a century ago, it’d be absurd to tell a military general otherwise. On the other hand, plenty of sciences don’t or didn’t progress for a very long time, tentative candidates brought up by Larry Laudan being: “acoustics from 1750 to 1780; human anatomy from 1900 to 1920; kinematic astronomy from 1200 to 1500; rational mechanics from 1910 to 1940.”
Perhaps an even bigger problem with some of the attempts in the twentieth century is many of them, Popper’s and A.J. Ayer’s in particular, failed to meet the fourth desiderata. They became much closer to simply esoteric distinctions without implications.

E. Do we have a solution today?

So, are we still trying to figure out the demarcation problem now? Or did we figure it out? I think it’s the latter. But insofar as we’re trying to understand what Senku says (he never does touch on the correct answer), this is likely mostly irrelevant for our purposes. But I’ll make a few notes here so as to not leave readers unsatisfied, then move on.
The contemporary answer usually involves giving up necessary and sufficient conditions altogether. This is as revolutionary as it is deeply problematic for practical reasons. Let me offer a historical fact that I’m uniquely situated to give. Once upon a time, there was a United States Supreme Court case meant to decide once and for all whether creationism should be taught in schools. The answer is, of course, that it should not be.
So, the supreme court brought in a very well known expert on the matter: Michael Ruse. Michael Ruse was going to adjudicate on what was and wasn’t science for the purposes of the United States Supreme Court, and was going to change the world with it. What was Michael Ruse’s answer? Something like logical positivism.
Why did he do this? Well, Michael Ruse happens to be my professor’s professor, and so I have a bit of insight into what Ruse was thinking here via what he said when his student asked him about his decision to give a false answer to the demarcation question when he was asked for the goods.
Here’s the problem. The newer answers have no necessary or sufficient conditions. The Supreme Court can’t work with that. But obviously, we need to keep creationism out of schools. The older answers lacked the normative component, and also were demonstrably not the correct necessary and sufficient conditions, but you could work with them. You could clearly adjudicate on what was and wasn’t science for legislative purposes.
But even if all the answers involve quite a bit of vagueness, resistant to the sort of judgments practically necessary, we do have answers. These days, demarcative questions involve quite a bit of vagueness. Laudan himself suggests simply giving up terms like “pseudoscience” and “non-science,” researching only into what knowledge is and isn’t reliable. So, on the one end, you have fields like history, metaethics, literary criticism, biology, foundations of quantum mechanics, modal semantics, mathematics, causation, and so on. These fields give us reliable knowledge. Then, closer to the other end of the spectrum, you have things like social Darwinism, creationism, Myers-Briggs typology, objectivism, acupuncture, conversion therapy, and so on. These fields, theories, topics, etc. don’t give us or involve reliable knowledge.
And then, between the reliable sciences and non-sciences, it’s not uncommon (though not unanimous) to see another sort of spectrum. On one end, you have research that might be thought of as more “direct” or “observational.” Further away, you have more theoretical fields. So, modal semantics, the foundations of quantum mechanics, moral ontology, causation, physical cosmology, and so on.
In short, many contend that the search for strict demarcation has ended, for better or worse, contrary to what Senku seems to want.

What does this mean for Senku? Why is he wrong? (Summary included)

Senku claims that the basis of science is figuring out underlying rules. But as we’ve seen, this Aristotelian view of science didn’t work out so well. Now, of course, one reason was that our understanding of underlying rules wasn’t infallible, which is hardly a problem for us today, seeing as we’re fallibilists. But another is that plenty of sciences simply don’t look for underlying mechanisms explaining the phenomena, etc. I gave the example of astronomy, which for the longest time did no such thing. There are plenty of other examples today. Indeed, many physicists complain that this is the case for large swathes of their field.
He also expresses a belief in the scientific method. But after intense research in the nineteenth century, it doesn’t seem like there’s any such thing. Throughout history, much research, being done clearly as it ought to be, didn’t involve many things often purported to be methodologically necessary, like replication or hypothesizing.
Anyway, I’d love to write more, and if enough people find any part of this interesting, I plan to write more, whether to elaborate on certain things I cut short here or to answer the other questions I listed that the show tackles. But you gotta make the cut somewhere.
All in all, despite these inaccuracies, I don’t want people to be left with the notion that this show is overall scientific hogwash. While it gets its central and fundamental questions wrong, the research into other areas are pretty detailed.
I’d love to talk to the mangaka, Riichiro Inagaki, about all of this. I wouldn’t just bring up the flaws I just mentioned, but my adoration of the show and the aesthetic context it exists in. I’d want them to understand both these flaws and what an incredible achievement with respect to representations of science it is. But alas, I have no way of communicating to Inagaki at this time! Maybe one day, hey?
Anyway, to summarize like I did in the other sections, the show explores a lot of topics central to what science is, two of which are:
  1. What is the essence of science?
  2. Does science have a specific method to it? If so, what?
Here’s a brief answer to both:
  1. Not any of the main answers prior to the last few decades.
  2. No, “the scientific method” is a myth (though fortunately, scientists are listening more and more to experts on the matter) and there’s likely no such thing, though often useful for teaching those unfamiliar with science about it.
Senku has something of a mish mash between Aristotle's, Descartes's(?), and the nineteenth century account, and unfortunately, all of these have been debunked.
Hopefully, everyone’s gained something from all of this. Let me know and let me know if it’s worth writing the rest of what I’d like to write about on the matter. :)

Sources and further reading

To stay under the character limit, I'll add this as a comment below. Someone remind me!
submitted by justanediblefriend to badscience [link] [comments]


2019.12.13 22:46 justanediblefriend The bad science and history of a science-focused story: What does Senku from Dr. STONE get terribly wrong despite the incredible manga’s attention to detail and being so well-researched? Its most central topic: What science is. (Part one, minimal spoilers.)

Introduction: What is Dr. STONE all about?

So, I just finished Dr. STONE, binged it all while studying for my physics final (which I did pretty well on, thanks for asking). It’s not perfect; I could definitely write a pretty detailed review on its aesthetic and moral accuracies and inaccuracies, but I’m willing to bet plenty of people more experienced with that sort of thing already are, and have repeated the points I’d have to make ad nauseam.
No, what really prompted me to write about Dr. STONE is not my assessment of how good the show is and whatever evidence I have to convince you that I’m right (though I do think it’s a fairly good show), but rather my claims about the accuracy of Dr. STONE’s claims about science. The show, for those unfamiliar with it, is about a teenager with superhuman scientific knowledge trying to see if he can (for reasons I won’t reveal) obtain our technology from scratch.
While he does this, the show explores a lot of topics central to what science is:
  1. Does science produce epistemic achievements about unobservables? That is, does science ever figure out anything? Are our best scientific theories approximating truth?
  2. What is the essence of science?
  3. Does science have a specific method to it? If so, what?
  4. Who should we, and scientists, recognize as having epistemic authority?
All of these are really important questions, but I can’t go over them all. Here’s a brief answer to each of them, and an overview of what I’ll be discussing in this post.
  1. Experts are about four times as likely to say “yes” than “no,” but there’s still a lot of disagreement on the issue. Furthermore, despite the expert consensus on the matter, scientists at large seem to disagree, with many leading scholars observing that scientists tend to hold or express what are called “anti-realist” attitudes.
  2. Not any of the main answers prior to the last few decades.
  3. No, “the scientific method” is a myth (though fortunately, scientists are listening more and more to experts on the matter) and there’s likely no such thing, though often useful for teaching those unfamiliar with science about it.
  4. There’s disagreement, but there’s been a stronger push away from hard distinctions between observers and subjects in terms of epistemic authority, and naïve notions of objectivity. Much research shows that they have an ironic tendency of moving us away from the objective truth.
I could talk at great length about all of these issues and how the shows explore them. I’m especially passionate about 4. But I’ll be going with 2, and briefly, 3.
I was actually considering posting this on /badscience at first, but with the season finale being here today, I think this subreddit deserves it the most. I should clarify that I don’t think the show (and presumably manga) is wildly inaccurate, bordering on pseudoscience or anything. Indeed, it’s specifically the fact that the manga is so well-researched, accurate, and pays so much attention to detail that it makes for a good subject of analysis. I mean, who would want to see me give a detailed analysis of how Ant-Man or Avengers: Endgame is at odds with science? I think everyone can tell the films were playing it a bit fast and loose with quantum mechanics (and classical mechanics, and their own mechanics, etc.).
But Dr. STONE is just so fucking good when it comes to matters of science that where it gets things wrong becomes especially interesting. It’s actually so good that instead of writing a paper like my professor asked for for my final assignment, I wrote a Dr. STONE (and Back to the Future) inspired short story that explores the four issues I just listed above. I won’t be sharing that story, of course; it was a rushed, 3-day final project, but this should speak to just how much I fell in love with elements from this show).
So. What is the essence of science?

How Dr. STONE drops the philosophers’ stone: What Senku says

Senku makes a lot of offhand comments about what science is. While the show proposes several positions with respect to all four topics above, I’ll be focusing on the things relating to topics 2 and 3. Some stuff worth going over are Senku’s claims that:
Some of these, I might mention or comment on in passing while saying quite a bit more on the others. So, what does Senku get right and what does Senku get wrong?

Is Senku right about hypothesizing, experimenting, and replication? Let’s find out.

Is Senku right about hypothesizing, experimenting, and replication? Let’s find out.

Senku claims that science involves hypothesizing and experimenting over and over, slowly, to refute another character’s claim that science was epistemically failing them. Is it true that these are necessary (Senku seems to be claiming that these are necessary rather than sufficient conditions for science; the latter claim would be a bit more untenable) conditions for science?
There’s a lot to be said about whether hypotheses and experiments are necessary to science, but I think I’ll give Senku those since I think the last part is a bit more interesting (and it’s a bit harder to adjudicate what exactly Senku means with the former components, and some ways of interpreting it might run into issues with cases like Bell’s theorem).
Science seems to centrally need replication and reproducibility, does it not? That’s why, after all, the purported replication crisis we’ve had for some time now seems so fundamentally troubling for science.
But as historian of science Friedrich Steinle will note, while replication is important, it’s not so essential that science can be accurately described as the process of hypothesizing and experimenting over and over. Sometimes, you hypothesize, do an experiment, and there’s no demand for replication at all, which, by Steinle’s lights, appears to be a correct judgment. So as it turns out, science’s relationship to replication and reproducibility is incredibly complex, and a great deal of research by historians, philosophers, and social scientists has been necessary to understand this relationship.
Steinle offers an example, noting that “The first vacuum pump was designed and put in operation by the Magdeburg mayor and former technical advisor Otto von Guericke in the 1650….Guericke’s apparatus was unique, complicated, expensive, and difficult to handle….In any case, it is clear that replication was not an issue for Guericke; but even without replication, no doubts were raised about his results. This had probably to do with his public performance that could be witnessed by a large number of participants.” There’s no reason to think that the common sense of scientists at the time was wrongheaded. The judgment that replication was unnecessary in the case of Guericke’s experiment, and unnecessary to science overall, seems to be a very strong datum that it is, in fact, not necessary. This doesn’t mean replication can be neglected or that it’s unimportant, Steinle himself will note that it’s clearly necessary in all sorts of cases. But here, it was not. The need for replication is incredibly contextual, and it is not a part of the necessary or sufficient conditions of science.
Indeed, there may be no such things as necessary or sufficient conditions of science. To elaborate, let’s consider the two related claims that science is fundamentally about figuring out underlying rules, and that it is the “pain-in-the-ass” method by which we discover those underlying rules.

Getting directly at the several millennia old issue: What is the essence of science, and what does Dr. STONE get wrong about science?

So, what about those two claims?
They’re actually precedented. What Senku is claiming here is rooted in a mish mash of historical events, but, as I’ll demonstrate, what these events teach us is actually that Senku is rather confused about what it is that science is. First, we’ll need to talk about the problem we’re grappling with here, then the history of the problem, and finally what we can draw from that history.

What’s the problem?

What we’re dealing with is called the demarcation problem, and it’s a problem we’ve been facing for over two millennia. It’s an incredibly important problem, and is the engine behind a great many events in intellectual history. The importance of this problem to those events is to such a severe extent that some historians or those interested in history have considered it disappointing that those events are taught without this incredibly necessary context.
So, what is the demarcation problem and why is it so damned important that it’s so central to so many historical events? Briefly:
Why is this so important? Well, science has a lot of weight. Since the ancient era, we listened to scientists. When they said something was going on, we took them at their word. That is, they have epistemic authority. We teach our children, as well as adults, what the results of science were and what scientists are doing today. We fund scientists. And we do all of these things to science in a way where we don’t do it to that which isn’t science; we rightly pass on scientific knowledge and not pseudoscientific knowledge, or at least we try or purport to.
With that in mind, what are some things we want from a theory of what demarcates science and non-science? For ease of reference, I’ll call these desiderata from here on out.

The desiderata of demarcation

I’ll not only be going over the desiderata of demarcation, but why those desiderata are justified. A demarcation between science and non-science should:
  1. be in line with actual scientific practice,
  2. provide the necessary conditions of science,
  3. provide the sufficient conditions of science, and
  4. explain the normative properties of science (i.e. why it’s so valuable in all the ways we think it’s valuable.
So , why do we need to satisfy all four desiderata? I’ll consider them one by one.
(1) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem actually describe scientific practice? A solution should aim to fit within the sciences those paradigmatic sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology. For consider if the demarcation only purported to show some non-actual, ideal demarcation. How would a solution do any of what we want it to then? If physics isn't a science, then our desire to take physicists to be authoritative cannot come from our desire to take scientists in general to be authoritative, since that desire corresponds to non-actual scientists.
(2) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem provide the necessary conditions for science? If it only gave the sufficient conditions, then certainly, we'd be able to know when some investigation isn't pseudo-scientific, is authoritative or worthwhile as such, etc. But now, we'd have no ability to know when some investigation isn't pseudo-scientific, shouldn't be paid any heed, shouldn't be funded, etc.
(3) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem provide the sufficient conditions for science? If it only gave the necessary conditions, then certainly, we'd be able to know when some investigation is pseudo-scientific, isn't authoritative or worthwhile as such, etc. But now, we'd have no ability to know when some investigation is pseudo-scientific, shouldn't be paid any heed, shouldn't be funded, etc.
(4) Why should a solution to the demarcation problem make it clear why science is valuable? If all we're doing is just coming up with some unimportant, formal distinction between fields, the problem wouldn't be any more important than demarcating between various sciences. Sure, we think there's a difference between physics and biology, but if it came to light that this wasn't the case, would it matter, and would everyone focus intensely on figuring out the demarcation? A solution to the demarcation problem should let us know what to fund, who to listen to, etc.
So, without further ado, here is the history of answers to this problem.

What have we already tried?

It’s a little ambiguous what exactly Senku is saying, but I think I have a good idea of what he might be trying to get at. So I’ll try to go over the history (with much thanks to Larry Laudan) independently of Senku’s thoughts, and then offer my comments on what Senku is trying to get across.

A. Aristotle

So, with the four desiderata in mind, what solutions have been provided throughout the history of philosophy and science to the problem? What did people think was the difference between science and non-science? We can trace this problem back to Parmenides of Ancient Greece. Concerns about the difference between episteme, or knowledge, and doxa, or mere opinion, loomed large. Aristotle provided a solution in his Posterior Analytics, positing that scientific knowledge had to involve indisputable, complete, absolute certainty. After all, if scientific beliefs are as uncertain as the rest of our beliefs, it's not obvious that there would be any hard divide between scientific knowledge and mere opinion.
He also thought that scientific knowledge must involve more than knowing how to do things, but knowing why those things work. I may know that trees lose their leaves in fall because of wind blowing them away, but this is not scientific knowledge. I must demonstrate how this occurs from more fundamental, general causes for scientific knowledge. So, scientific knowledge would be deeper, like the knowledge that less sunlight limits chlorophyll which is needed for leaves to stick to trees.
In other words, science had to be “derived from first principles,” so to speak. You can think of Aristotle’s “first principles” as something like the most basic laws of nature. What Aristotle had in mind specifically, was the prevailing geocentric theory having to do with elements. This part of history may be a little more popularly known than some of the other parts. Back in the day, the universe was thought to be geocentric; the Earth was at the center. Why? Was this just some sort of self-importance on our part? No, this seemed to best explain a lot of the phenomena we were witnessing. There were four fundamental elements. There were heavy, Earth-y things, or Fire-y things that went up. But up, down, etc. in relation to what? The Earth. Everything they observed seemed to have the Earth as a “telos,” as Aristotle would say. And they could see that. They could apparently sit down and observe, over and over, that all Earth-y objects have, as their telos, the Earth while Fire-y objects went away from the Earth.
So, they were certain of that much. There was no denying that there were four elements, that interactions between these elements and the rules they played by explained all phenomena. So, if it could just be demonstrated that something was entailed from these first principles, such a thing could be known for certain just like these first principles.
For science, we need principles which we are certain of and can logically derive facts of the world from, and we need to know what is fundamentally happening, on a deeper level, with our observations. This is what gives us absolute certainty.

B. Seventeenth and eighteenth century

By the time of Galileo and Newton, the need to figure out what was fundamentally going on at a deeper level was no longer taken to be needed for science. Galileo refused to figure out why what he was saying was true, but all the same, he knew what he said of free-falling bodies was true with absolute certainty. Newton similarly didn't claim to know why the celestial bodies moved the way he said they did, but he said he was coming up with theories directly from the phenomena and so he was sure. He wanted to know why, but felt that was unimportant to his theories being scientific.
There were two driving forces behind dropping the second demarcative component devised by Aristotle, and keeping only certainty. First, it didn’t match up with the sciences. By this time, and even before, by the time of Ptolemy, mathematical astronomy was not at all deriving the trajectories of the celestial bodies from first principles. Astronomers were simply figuring out correlations between the movements of the celestial bodies and other bodies, the seasons, and so on. Explanation from first principles was no consideration at all. Some bit the bullet that astronomers just weren’t scientists, but this was a hard bullet to bite since it seems rather clear that we should listen to astronomers.
Second, there was an extremely worrying revolution that shook every scientist and philosopher to her core. The fall of geocentrism and the very first principles that all scientific knowledge had been derived from since then. After this, there was very little agreement over how it was that scientific knowledge was absolutely certain. René Descartes was someone who famously sought to show how we could have scientific knowledge. Certainty was very important, hence he dug down to find a belief in which he was certain, which he thought was his famous Cogito: I think, therefore I am. He thought we could derive all of science from this, and that’s how we could be certain of scientific knowledge. This wasn’t a fruitless endeavor. While he developed this attempt at demarcation, he discovered a lot that we still use to this day. For instance, it was Descartes who came up with science as being concerned with mechanisms and laws of nature, something physicists still do today. Prior to then, science was an investigation into teleology and purpose, not mechanisms and laws. This was a fundamental shift in our empirical investigations, one that has persisted in all sciences and one we can thank Descartes for.
When David Hume potentially showed that we couldn't even form any justification by which we could derive our predictions from just our observations beyond practical need, Immannuel Kant freaked out and spent the rest of his life coming up with an entire system of philosophy meant to show how science could be justified to a point of certainty as well as metaphysics as a science, which was concerned with only a small set of questions which could be answered in metaphysics (anticipating later attempts to throw out metaphysics, he too threw away much of it).
Newton, Kant, Descartes, Locke, Bacon, etc. argued all the time, then, over how it is scientific knowledge is infallible. But nobody denied that, of course, it was, if done right, infallible. If they just figured out how to do it right, they’d obtain certain knowledge.

C. Nineteeth century

By the nineteenth century, the fallibility of all of our beliefs became dominantly accepted, and so this solution could not do any longer. But if not complete and indisputable certainty, what could distinguish science from non-science? Researchers in the nineteenth century tried to demarcate science from non-science via method. There must have been some identifiable scientific method by which it could be shown that some pursuits were scientific and some were not.
The scientific method, they reasoned, could still be fallible, could still lead to mistakes, and so on, and so there was no threat of making the same mistake as the infallibilists of all the eras before them. But this method of testing would allow us to correct ourselves so that we could keep progressing despite our mistakes in our pursuit of knowledge. This attitude can be summarized in E.V. Davis’s pithy remark that, “"if science lead us astray, more science will set us straight.”
To be clear, the idea that there was some specific method of going about scientific investigation was not a new idea. But the idea that it was fallible, but still the best method of forming knowledge, was new. So, everyone tried to figure out what was in common between the sciences, and how it was that this method was better than other methods of trying to figure things out. Various proposals were made, but all of them were not only vague, they didn't even actually match what scientists were doing. Furthermore, nobody was able to explain how their proposed methods were better at forming knowledge than any of the other proposals.
Now, it is taken to be the case that there simply is no such thing as "the scientific method." Despite this, as noted in the following two links (also check their citations, especially Bauer's Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method), many science educators and the public at large still act as if it exists:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4522609/ https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scientific-method/#SciMetSciEduSeeSci

D. Twentieth century

So, certainty doesn't work. Fundamentality doesn't work. Methodology doesn't work. Maybe distinguishing science and non-science via semantics and meaningfulness would work.
This was a large part of the attempts of the members of the Vienna circle, a group of scientists and philosophers who started a movement known as logical positivism. Logical positivism was an incredibly complex movement, which few contemporary summaries do justice. But to give an idea of the movement, I’ll briefly discuss their motivations and two prominent formulations of one of their central theses.

FORMULATING EARLY LOGICAL POSITIVISM

Logical positivism rose with the apparent increase in success of scientific, logical, mathematical, and linguistic investigation. Feeling the need to throw out all of philosophy which did not appear to show the promise of similar success, logical positivists aimed to restrict what sentences were meaningful down to much less. This would, in effect, allow them to put front and center the sciences, the mathematics, and so on, throwing out what they took to me nonsensical metaphysics. You can consider this a birthplace of certain scientistic cultural elements which persist to this very day.
It should be made clear that the logical positivists came off the heels of an era of philosophy where philosophers would make claims like "The absolute is perfect" or "Nothingness nothings," which the logical positivists saw as just a bunch of pseudo-poetic nonsense, as evidenced by their lack of any form of measurable success against their scientific counterparts, who made claims like "This is the data we should expect from this experiment." The logical positivists were much more sympathetic to the latter form of claims. They really seemed to mean something and weren't just apparently pseudo-poetic word salad, and they really seemed to be getting at some sort of success.
Another causally relevant factor was that Bertrand Russell had a significant influence on how the logical positivists thought of philosophy in the Medieval era. Russell would often mischaracterize them because he really hated them, and many of the logical positivists simply trusted Russell’s account after Russell became a central figure in philosophy due to his immense contributions to logic, mathematics, and the philosophies thereof. So, they aimed to throw away much of medieval philosophy too, which we know now was a grave mistake on their part, perhaps even more problematic than their belief that the claims in the previous paragraph were meaningless word salad.
In short, scientific investigation was good, nonsensical metaphysical investigation, whatever that was, was silly.
With those motivations in mind, in what follows, I will explain early logical positivism and its death as briefly as I can. I can elaborate should anyone be interested in these problems, but I suspect nobody will be, and so I will cut myself short on each part.
Early logical positivists defended the verificationist criterion of meaning, meaning they believed that all declarative sentences were:
A. Analytic: True or false in virtue of the meanings of the terms (e.g. "All squares have four sides," "All ravens are birds"). B. Empirically verifiable: Logically entailed from some finite set of possible observation (sentences), or could in principle be verified by some finite set of observation (sentences). C. Meaningless. It’s difficult to make out exactly what this means, but importantly, it meant that something wasn’t worth investigating.
This account failed.
First, it couldn’t account for sentences of universal form, or sentences of the form “All F is G,” or “Each x is such that if it is F, it is G,” or to put it symbolically, “(∀x)(Fx⊃Gx).” For example, claims like “All stars emit light” or “All electrons repel other electrons.” These weren’t true or false in virtue of the meanings of the terms alone, nor was it possible for them to be entailed by some finite set of observations (or rather, the sentences for those observations).
Second, it couldn’t resist the addition of meaningless disjuncts. Via disjunction introduction, the purportedly meaningless sentences could be added on without problem.
Third, it made certain claims about the same very same thing, of the very same subject, etc. meaningful while their counterparts were meaningless. For example, “unicorns exist” would be meaningful under this criterion, while “unicorns don’t exist” would not be. Why? Well, you may know that all positive statements are logically equivalent to some negative statement. This is often brought up when someone debunks the myth that “you can’t prove a negative.” But perhaps less known is that you can take this further: negative existential statements are logically equivalent to some positive universal sentence, such that negative existential statements run into the problem of being sentences of universal form, and thus (as previously demonstrated) meaningless.
A demarcation which distinguishes between “unicorns exist” and “unicorns don’t exist” as scientific or not is deeply, and perhaps fatally, problematic.
Fourth, Gödel's theorem, often summarized as truth outrunning provability in formal systems, demonstrated that for any language with a finite set of axioms (and inference rules) that let you do some arithmetic, some sentences within that language can't be proven or disproven. This meant that, contrary to the hopes of the logical positivists, mathematics couldn’t all be accounted for analytically via a small set of syntactical rules.
Fifth, the early criterion was self-defeating. The criterion itself was neither analytic nor empirically verifiable. So, if the criterion was correct, then it was meaningless. Otherwise, it was incorrect. A.J. Ayer’s defense against this claim involved taking “meaningless” to be an academic term of art, simply defined a certain way, but that would mean that it has nothing to do with whether something is worth investigating or whether some research was worth respecting.
In short, early logical positivism faced a lot of problems, any of which were individually fatal to it, which prompted later developments.
Later on, many logical positivists (though I emphasize again the incredibly diversity of the movement) defended the translatability criterion of meaning, meaning they believed that all declarative sentences were either:
A. Empirically translatable: Translatable into an empiricist language, which, following Hempel, I'll denote as L. B. Meaningless.
What does it mean for a sentence to be translatable into language L? This can be left a little bit open, so that various languages are proposed which would satisfy the motivations of the logical positivists. But Hempel considers a specific proposal for L that he thinks at least approaches being a serious contender. L is any language wherein:
C. The vocabulary of *L* contains (i) logical expressions like "if...then," "not," "and," "or," "all," "some," and so on, (ii) certain observation predicates, where observation predicates are terms which designate directly observable characteristics like "green," "soft," and "taller than," and so on, and finally (iii) any expression which can be defined via the terms of i and ii. D. The syntax of *L* is the syntax of some contemporary logical system, like that of the Principia Mathematica.
If you don't quite get that, that's fine; the basic idea here is that there is this language which is entirely restricted to sentences which would describe something we can observe and investigate. It has to be about a direct observation, or something that a direct observation implies. If you say "Hey, my good is green," I can do some science on that claim and be like "Yep, sure is, Sam-I-Am," or "Nope, I am afraid you are outside of your mind with respect to the coloration of those items, my dear friend Sam-I-Am." If you say "Hey, this glowing stuff is radioactive," then even though I can't directly observe radiation, I can do some science on that claim too because it entails certain direct observations.
Hopefully, that gives at least some blurry shape to this criterion.
This solves all of the old problems (will elaborate if needed), but comes with fatal new problems.
First, it can’t account for dispositional terms like “fragile.” We can do this today thanks to the advent of possible worlds semantics (which is also how we know, with nearly unanimous consensus, that there exist other possible worlds), but even that probably wouldn’t have helped the translatability criterion.
Second, by the 1950s, plenty of highly sophisticated theoretical abstracts simply couldn’t be defined or reduced to observation predicates. These include terms like “wavefunction” or “electric field.”
Third, accounting for inductive inference syntactically made inductive inference relative or underdetermined by anything other than language. Inductive inference is central to our everyday lives. When you decided to eat food rather than drink arsenic for nutrition this morning, you inferred from what you’ve observed what experiences you haven’t observed would be like. Any theory that can’t account for this is wrong.
In response to problems like this, even later thinkers would allow for theories which had any observational component(s) at all, so long as the rest of the theory was broadly, appropriately, liberally related to those observational components.
But of course, research in metaphysics, much like theoretical physics, does do that. This marked the end of the anti-metaphysics and anti-philosophy of logical positivism, as it was demonstrated despite their best efforts that it seemed impossible to demarcate between the sciences and metaphysics. Later on, logical positivism died.
What were some other attempts worth mentioning in the twentieth century? Karl Popper thought that maybe the sciences were falsifiable while the non-sciences weren’t, but this position is as dead as logical positivism. Others thought that science was unique in that it progressed, while non-sciences didn’t, but this doesn’t turn out well at all either. Others interpreted science pragmatically and as having to do with its useful and practical applications, but this didn’t work out either.
Others have done great work on how these failed, but with this section dragging on a bit, I’ll just note for one of them that clearly, plenty of non-scientific fields progress, like literary criticism, metaethics, history, military strategy, etc. We certainly know more in those fields than we did a century ago, it’d be absurd to tell a military general otherwise. On the other hand, plenty of sciences don’t or didn’t progress for a very long time, tentative candidates brought up by Larry Laudan being: “acoustics from 1750 to 1780; human anatomy from 1900 to 1920; kinematic astronomy from 1200 to 1500; rational mechanics from 1910 to 1940.”
Perhaps an even bigger problem with some of the attempts in the twentieth century is many of them, Popper’s and A.J. Ayer’s in particular, failed to meet the fourth desiderata. They became much closer to simply esoteric distinctions without implications.

E. Do we have a solution today?

So, are we still trying to figure out the demarcation problem now? Or did we figure it out? I think it’s the latter. But insofar as we’re trying to understand what Senku says (he never does touch on the correct answer), this is likely irrelevant for our purposes. But I’ll make a few notes here so as to not leave readers unsatisfied, then move on.
The contemporary answer usually involves giving up necessary and sufficient conditions altogether. This is as revolutionary as it is deeply problematic for practical reasons. Let me offer a historical fact that I’m uniquely situated to give. Once upon a time, there was a United States Supreme Court case meant to decide once and for all whether creationism should be taught in schools. The answer is, of course, that it should not be.
So, the supreme court brought in a very well known expert on the matter: Michael Ruse. Michael Ruse was going to adjudicate on what was and wasn’t science for the purposes of the United States Supreme Court, and was going to change the world with it. What was Michael Ruse’s answer? Something like logical positivism.
Why did he do this? Well, Michael Ruse happens to be my professor’s professor, and so I have a bit of insight into what Ruse was thinking here via what he said when his student asked him about his decision to give a false answer to the demarcation question when he was asked for the goods.
Here’s the problem. The newer answers have no necessary or sufficient conditions. The Supreme Court can’t work with that. But obviously, we need to keep creationism out of schools. The older answers lacked the normative component, and also were demonstrably not the correct necessary and sufficient conditions, but you could work with them. You could clearly adjudicate on what was and wasn’t science for legislative purposes.
So, that’s the situation we’re in. Good? Good. Moving on!

What does this mean for Senku? Why is he wrong? (Summary included)

Senku claims that the basis of science is figuring out underlying rules. But as we’ve seen, this Aristotelian view of science didn’t work out so well. Now, of course, one reason was that our understanding of underlying rules wasn’t infallible, which is hardly a problem for us today, seeing as we’re fallibilists. But another is that plenty of sciences simply don’t look for underlying mechanisms explaining the phenomena, etc. I gave the example of astronomy, which for the longest time did no such thing. There are plenty of other examples today. Indeed, many physicists complain that this is the case for large swathes of their field.
Anyway, I’d love to write more, and if enough people find any part of this interesting, I plan to write more, whether to elaborate on certain things I cut short here or to answer the other questions I listed that the show tackles. But a girl’s gotta party, and I do have a party coming up soon.
All in all, despite these inaccuracies, I don’t want people to be left with the notion that this show is overall scientific hogwash. While it gets its central and fundamental questions wrong, the research into other areas are breath-takingly detailed, and it’s the sort of hard sci-fi that I live for.
I’d love to talk to the mangaka, Riichiro Inagaki, about all of this. I wouldn’t just bring up the flaws I just mentioned, but my adoration of the show and the aesthetic context it exists in. I’d want them to understand both these flaws and what an incredible achievement with respect to representations of science it is. But alas, I have no way of communicating to Inagaki at this time! Maybe one day, hey?
Anyway, to summarize like I did in the other sections:
The show explores a lot of topics central to what science is:
  1. Does science produce epistemic achievements about unobservables? That is, does science ever figure out anything? Are our best scientific theories approximating truth?
  2. What is the essence of science?
  3. Does science have a specific method to it? If so, what?
  4. Who should we, and scientists, recognize as having epistemic authority?
Here’s a brief answer to each of them:
  1. Experts are about four times as likely to say “yes” than “no,” but there’s still a lot of disagreement on the issue. Furthermore, despite the expert consensus on the matter, scientists at large seem to disagree, with many leading scholars observing that scientists tend to hold or express what are called “anti-realist” attitudes.
  2. Not any of the main answers prior to the last few decades.
  3. No, “the scientific method” is a myth (though fortunately, scientists are listening more and more to experts on the matter) and there’s likely no such thing, though often useful for teaching those unfamiliar with science about it.
  4. There’s disagreement, but there’s been a stronger push away from hard distinctions between observers and subjects in terms of epistemic authority, and naïve notions of objectivity. Much research shows that they have an ironic tendency of moving us away from the objective truth.
Senku has something of a mish mash between Aristotle's, Descartes's(?), and the nineteenth century account, and unfortunately, all of these have been debunked.
Hopefully, everyone’s gained something from all of this. Let me know and let me know if it’s worth writing the rest of what I’d like to write about on the matter. :)

Sources and further reading

Andersen, H., & Hepburn, B.’s. “Scientific Method” from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on 2015, November 13. Fidler, F., & Wilcox, J.’s “Reproducibility Of Scientific Results” from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on 2018, December 3. Hansson, S. O.’s “Science And Pseudo-Science” in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on 2017, April 11. Hempel, C.’s “Problems and Changes in the Empiricist Criterion of Meaning,” from Revue Internationale de Philosophie in 1950. Laudan, L.’s “The Demise of the Demarcation Problem” in 1983. Lilienfeld, S. O., Sauvigné, K. C., Lynn, S. J., Cautin, R. L., Latzman, R. D., & Waldman, I. D.’s “Fifty psychological and psychiatric terms to avoid: a list of inaccurate, misleading, misused, ambiguous, and logically confused words and phrases” from Front. Psychol., 6 in 2015. Myrvold, W., Genovese, M., & Shimony, A.’s “Bell’s Theorem” from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on 2019, March 13.
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2019.11.30 18:33 nikkigreyton DIGITAL GOLD: A LEGIT AND NEW WAY TO INVEST IN GOLD

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2019.11.21 11:31 walkerisaac736 Global Torque Sensor Market 2019 - Porter Five Forces Analysis, Growth Opportunities & Forecasts 2024

Global Torque Sensor Market 2019 - Porter Five Forces Analysis, Growth Opportunities & Forecasts 2024
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Global Torque Sensor market 2019 is a very recent research report which focuses on providing a primary overview of the industry including Segmentation, definitions, implementation, and industry structure. The Global Torque Sensor Industry analyzes the worldwide markets involving the changing trends, competitive landscapes, and key geographic development status. Expansion strategies and plans are also well discussed along with the processes of manufacturing and cost structures of the product. Supply and demand Figures, import/export consumption, cost, price, revenue, and gross margins are also stated in this report.
Scope and limitation of the Torque Sensor Market: This Research Mostly pinpoints on the PESTEL analysis (i.e. Political, Environmental, social, Technological, Legal and Economical factors) as they are the opportunity generation as well as the challenging factors of any industry. The technology is changing day by day depending on the consumer's tastes and preferences. Along with the changing market trends, the surrounding Factors also influence changes either positive or negative to any business.
Sample PDF Request Link
Torque Sensor Market Competitive Outlook: The Profiles of Active Competitors of the Torque Sensor Market are also analyzed based on their geographical activity, product type, Market Potential, Productions, sales, future strategies, and the technological status Forecast of the leading manufacturers are also included here. This Report is estimated from the global aspect of Market that is the reason this data can assist any consumer or business and help them to observe the rival strategies.
Top Competitors the Global Industry:
PCB Piezotronics Crane Electronics Kistler Instrument Datum Electronics Interface Transducer Techniques Honeywell FUTEK
Specific Types: Rotary Torque Sensors, Static/Reaction Torque Sensors, Magnetoelastic Torque Sensors
Application/Usage: Automotive Applications, Industrial Applications, Test and Measurement Applications
Geographical Distributions of the Torque Sensor: North America Country, South America, Asia Country, Europe Country Also Other Countries (Middle East, Africa, GCC)

Center of Attention in this Global Torque Sensor Market Report:

  1. The growth factors of the Global Torque Sensor Market are explained in-detail, whereas different users of the market are also described.
  2. This report includes the views and opinions of the experts and professionals in the industry.
  3. The report is a proper source of data for any investor, policymaker, stakeholder, manufacturer, supplier, service provider, and the player who is interested in the Torque Sensor market dynamics
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Contents covered in the Torque Sensor Research Report: - Executive Summary. - Profiles of Leading International Players. - Market Dynamics. - Key Players of the Market and the Strategies. - Key Findings of the research.
The report provides a worthwhile analysis of the Competitive landscape and its Dynamics that keeps the user ahead of their respective competitors. The Torque Sensor Market report provides a five-year forecast estimated on the basis of the market growth. So, with the help of this report user gets a direction to business decisions by having insights into the Global Torque Sensor Market.
THANKS! Reader For Visiting This Article.
Published By Market.Biz
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2019.09.18 09:42 datumelectronic Best Torque Measurement Automotive Tools for Torque Data Management

with over years of experience in the automotive spare parts industry, our team of experts includes engineers and designers that have come together to present the Datum electronics Professional Torque measurement for better torque data management.
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